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FCDO ODA allocations for 2021/22 were announced on 21 April 2021. Changes to individual programmes are underway. The information on this website may not reflect the latest allocated budgets for this year. This information will be updated in due course.

UK aid from the British people

Nepal

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Nepal Peacebuilding Programme

Conflict, Stability and Security Fund

This programme will work with local and national political groups, civil society, human rights organisations and the media in order to build Nepalese capacity to resolve local conflicts and support marginalised communities.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-52-CSSF-09-000002

Start Date:

2017-04-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£1,350,000


Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund Round 6

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs

Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is the fifth most lucrative transnational crime, worth up to £17bn a year globally. As well as threatening species with extinction, IWT destroys vital ecosystems. IWT also fosters corruption, feeds insecurity, and undermines good governance and the rule of law. The UK government is committed to tackling illegal trade of wildlife products. Defra manages the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund, which is a competitive grants scheme with the objective of tackling illegal wildlife trade and, in doing so, contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. Projects funded under the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund address one, or more, of the following themes: • Developing sustainable livelihoods to benefit people directly affected by IWT • Strengthening law enforcement • Ensuring effective legal frameworks • Reducing demand for IWT products Over £26 million has been committed to 85 projects since the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund was established in 2013; five projects were awarded in 2014 (via applications to the Darwin Initiative), fourteen in 2015, fifteen in 2016, thirteen in 2017, fourteen in 2018 and thirteen in 2019 and ten in the latest round in 2020. (more info here: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/919053/iwt-challenge-fund-list.pdf): IWT076, IWT077, IWT078, IWT082, IWT083, IWT079, IWT080, IWT081, IWT084, IWT085

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-7-IWTCF-R6

Start Date:

2020-04-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$3,417,064


Darwin Initiative Round 24

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs

The Darwin Initiative is a UK government grants scheme that helps to protect biodiversity and the natural environment through locally based projects worldwide. The initiative funds projects that help countries rich in biodiversity but poor in financial resources to meet their objectives under one or more of the biodiversity conventions. The objective is to to address threats to biodiversity such as: - habitat loss or degradation - climate change - invasive species - over-exploitation - pollution and eutrophication

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-7-DAR24

Start Date:

2018-04-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$10,604,188


Darwin Initiative Round 23

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs

The Darwin Initiative is a UK government grants scheme that helps to protect biodiversity and the natural environment through locally based projects worldwide. The initiative funds projects that help countries rich in biodiversity but poor in financial resources to meet their objectives under one or more of the biodiversity conventions. The objective is to to address threats to biodiversity such as: - habitat loss or degradation - climate change - invasive species - over-exploitation - pollution and eutrophication.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-7-DAR23

Start Date:

2018-04-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$7,619,619


Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund Round 3

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs

Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is the fifth most lucrative transnational crime, worth up to £17bn a year globally. As well as threatening species with extinction, IWT destroys vital ecosystems. IWT also fosters corruption, feeds insecurity, and undermines good governance and the rule of law. The UK government is committed to tackling illegal trade of wildlife products. Defra manages the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund, which is a competitive grants scheme with the objective of tackling illegal wildlife trade and, in doing so, contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. Projects funded under the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund address one, or more, of the following themes: • Developing sustainable livelihoods to benefit people directly affected by IWT • Strengthening law enforcement • Ensuring effective legal frameworks • Reducing demand for IWT products Over £23 million has been committed to 75 projects since the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund was established in 2013; five projects were awarded in 2014 (via applications to the Darwin Initiative), fourteen in 2015, fifteen in 2016, thirteen in 2017, fourteen in 2018 and in the latest round in 2019. This round of funding includes the following projects (details of which can be found at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/811381/iwt-project-list-2019.pdf). The projects that a relevant for this area are IWT035 to IWT047.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-7-IWTCF-R3

Start Date:

2017-04-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$4,123,118


Fleming Fund – Country and Regional Grants and Fellowships Programme

UK - Department of Health (DH)

The Fleming Fund helps low- and middle-income countries to fight antimicrobial resistance. A management agent has been appointed to deliver: country grants 24 low- and middle-income countries, regional grants in West Africa, East and Southern Africa, South Asia and South East Asia, and a global fellowships programme. These initiatives aim to improve laboratory capacity and diagnosis as well as data and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-10-FF_MA

Start Date:

2016-10-10

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$258,497,532.75


NMB Bank Limited

CDC Group plc

The loan will allow NMB to lend to key sectors of the Nepalese economy, including infrastructure and agriculture, as well as growing the proportion of loans to MSMEs.

Project identifier:

GB-COH-03877777-F322201

Start Date:

2018-11-29

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

$0


Seismic Safety and Resilience of Schools in Nepal

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

This project aims at developing a comprehensive scheme for enhancing the seismic safety and resilience of school buildings in Nepal. The circle of resilience initiates from a holistic seismic hazard assessment considering refined geological mapping, 3D site and topographic effects as well as seismicity sequence using statistical clustering models. This will be followed by the development of a smart diagnostics expert system app for reliable pre- and post-earthquake structural inspection. Its core logic will be based on US FEMA and ATC-20i standards extended to address functionality risks, inspection bias reduction based on inspection error patterns identified in the existing school buildings databases in Greece and Turkey. The above state-of-the-art hazard and vulnerability assessments will lead to the risk-based prioritization of schools that need strengthening. Particular emphasis in the diagnostics algorithm will be placed in identifying buildings with minor-to moderate damage, whose safety could be substantially improved with innovative yet simple measures. Along these lines, means of repair and retrofit will be identified by experimental testing of large and/or full scale, one storey-one classroom, 3D masonry and/or adobe/rammed earth simple buildings, as well as of one bay R/C infill frame, to be conducted at the shaking table of the University of Bristol and the University of Southampton in collaboration with the University of Bullafo, SUNY. Experiments will be co-designed with the project local partners in Nepal, where preliminary material testing will take place. The aim is to design a realistic testing campaign tailored to the construction characteristics of school buildings in Nepal. A deep understanding of the structural damage patterns will be obtained in the Laboratory by studying experimentally and verifying numerically, the cumulative damage under realistic mainshock and aftershock sequences, an issue that has never been studied at this extent. Innovative repair and retrofit techniques will be tested in order to assess and optimize their efficiency through an additional experimental set. Refined and simple solutions will be tested, co-produced and documented in the form of guidelines along with the local partners. An innovative concept of seismic isolation using natural materials will be the second major strand of experimental research for safer ""sliding"" construction of school buildings and shelters. This is aimed to provide a new alternative for low cost - high safety reconstruction. A comprehensive post-quake vulnerability assessment will then be developed accounting for regional materials and employing micro- and meso-fragility modelling for informed decision-making during the post-earthquake response, recovery and mitigation phases. This will build upon the existing emergency plans in Nepal with the specific aim to enrich the decision-making process by integrating post-quake shake maps in nearly real time. A tablet app will also be developed for reliable diagnostics of post-quake structural health based on the spectral-based FAST algorithm, a tested method in seismically active Mediterranean countries. An expert system will further link the identified damage states with the most appropriate repair/retrofit/rehabilitation techniques, as the latter have been identified, tested and certified previously in the Lab. During the entire duration of the project a series of workshops and training sessions will be organised in Nepal in order to interact with the local administration as well as the engineering and educational community. This interaction is deemed vital for the co-development of new concepts, the transfer of know-how and the sustainable construction of schools in both rural and urban areas of Nepal.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_P028926_1

Start Date:

2017-05-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£1,588,989.69


Humanitarian, Engineering and Energy for Displacement (HEED)

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

To address this global challenge call, a multi-sectorial consortium led by two UK Universities (Coventry University and the University of Oxford), with an international civil society partner and developing country researchers (Practical Action) and an international sustainable energy and ICT social enterprise consultancy (Scene Connect), has been formed to provide original research on energy for displaced populations. The overarching aim of this proposal is the implementation of safe and sustainable energy solutions for lighting, electrification, cooking, heating and cooling, and water and sanitation that promotes development and improves wellbeing in displaced communities, and the associated ICT-based business processes that enable replication and scalability. The consortium aims to deliver an innovative research programme to understand how the energy needs of displaced people can be met a safe, sustainable manner. The project seeks to provide research on energy needs in self-settlements, host communities and refugee camps, and understand how sustainable energy solutions can be delivered. Based on this evidence, the consortium will engage a range of energy stakeholders to design and implement sustainable energy solutions. The role of sustainable sources of energy in providing energy services for refugee protection is a critical area for innovation and scale-up. While the focus within refugee camps is often on solar energy (due to the advanced nature of this technology and the natural solar resource available in many developing countries), there are increasing opportunities for the use of renewable biomass and biogas, wind generators, micro-hydro, geothermal, LPG, and waste recycling. Similarly, renewable micro-grids and hybrid systems are often proposed as options for enabling flexible solutions that can be supplied quickly and efficiently in humanitarian emergencies. In addition, the feasibility and ability of low-cost, remote monitoring wireless systems to manage assets and pre-empt operations and maintenance issues of energy infrastructure require further investigation. Digital infrastructure could potentially be created to provide the private sector the assurance it requires to enter this market which has traditionally been the domain of humanitarian actors. All these scientific areas are worthy of research. The programme of work will provide energy access to four displaced populations in Rwanda (Kigeme, Nyabiheke, Gihembe refugee camps) and Nepal (Tibet and Bhutan refugees and Kathmandu climate change refugees) and assess the impact of the provision of energy on people's lives against the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and create impact through scalability of the energy solutions. Through the program we aim to build capacity with partner countries and organisations. To deliver this, the progress and outputs of the project will be disseminated through the UNESCO UNITWIN Network in Humanitarian Engineering (in which Coventry University is the global lead) as well as specially designed workshops to be held in Africa and Asia over the three year programme period. Ultimately, the project hopes to create a paradigm shift in the way refugees see themselves, instead of 'beneficiaries' dependent on handouts, they will be able to ""HELP"" themselves and become agents able to choose, produce, consume and take part in the running of their own communities.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_P029531_1

Start Date:

2017-05-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£972,701.59


Integrated 'on-chip' optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for point of care imaging diagnostics

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

The research context: Nepal is classified as one of the lowest income countries on the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) list and the general health of the population is considered to be poor by most measures, even in comparison with the rest of Asia. Access to healthcare is severely restricted, particularly in rural regions, which is undoubtedly a limiting factor to progress, generally. We have identified a specific unmet clinical need within Nepal that is fully aligned with this call for proposals; aided as it could be by the provision of affordable, point-of-care imaging diagnostics. There is an unusually high prevalence (up to 43%) of the population in Nepal suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and this has been the number one cause of death (>9%) there in recent years. This is thought to arise principally as a result of poor indoor air quality, with the condition being even more acute in difficult to reach, both geographically and economically, rural regions. It is particularly high amongst women, which may be largely attributable to the deeply embedded culture of indoor cooking and heating with biomass fuels Aims and objectives: Our aim is to develop a low cost miniaturized, integrated chip-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) based diagnostic tool which will provide a transformative change to the level of sophistication that access to such clinical imaging technology can bring to bear on COPD diagnosis and therapy. The key advance will stem from transitioning the fibre based interferometer at the heart of commercial OCT systems onto the silicon photonics chip, which will enable system complexity and cost reductions through manufacturing scalability. Silicon photonics is aptly suited to this because it is transparent at the target operating wavelength (1300nm) of most OCT systems and the required interferometer components have now all been demonstrated in isolation. Manufacturing of these sub-micron optical devices can be massively scaled at lower cost and to extremely high tolerances using the global passive fabrication infrastructure that has been built up around the telecommunications industry. In addition, many of these components have now also been realised in the silicon nitride (SiN) platform, extending capabilities down towards the visible range, which is particularly relevant to certain biomedical imaging regimes. We will develop SiN based interferometers in parallel with the silicon devices through wavelength scaled common optical circuit designs as proof of concept. Finally, we will take the ambitious step of developing a complete, fibre-less chip based solution by hybrid integration of miniature optical sources with the silicon/SiN based interferometers. Potential applications and benefits: The vision of a low complexity, low cost, miniature OCT system incorporated within existing bronchoscopy or catheter based medical devices that could be used along with commercially available data acquisition hardware and analytical software on a mobile platform is within reach. Such a system can provide the necessary access to a sophisticated imaging diagnostic tool that could displace basic spirometry and even fibre based bronchoscopy as the gold standard for early diagnosis of COPD. Its greatest benefit will be felt, initially, within remote regions of our partner LMIC country, Nepal where a high prevalence of the disease is exemplified and where access to such facilities is limited by both geography and economy. Improvements in resolution and speed for tissue imaging can also be expected to help improve our understanding of COPD progression in a fundamental way. For example the development and widespread adoption of the proposed OCT technology would generate population specific datasets of high quality for use by researchers and clinicians.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_R014418_1

Start Date:

2018-02-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£1,154,532.45


After the Earth's Violent Sway: the tangible and intangible legacies of a natural disaster

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

The physical impact of a natural disaster such as a major earthquake is immediately visible: lost lives, displaced people, destroyed houses and a shattered cultural heritage. However, the longer-term impact of such an event is less apparent. This project will study the impact that the earthquakes of 2015 had on Nepali society. It will examine public discourse to understand social change; study efforts to reclaim and reinvent material culture; and study archival material to identify the permanent marks left by previous disasters. First, the project will investigate the earthquakes' impact upon ongoing cultural and political discourse in Nepal. Nepal emerged from a ten-year civil war in 2006 and since then the country's main political players had been engaged in a seemingly interminable process of transition from a monarchical Hindu state to a democratic federal republic. Much of the debate and contention concerned the content of a new constitution for Nepal which would enshrine the new federal structure, safeguard democracy, and ensure greater inclusion of historically marginalized groups and communities. The earthquakes had a major impact upon this process: a new constitution was promulgated less than five months after the disaster, but its content proved to be highly divisive. The researchers on this project will investigate the ways in which the disaster changed the direction and content of the national debate on a number of key cultural and political issues over a three year period beginning on 25 April 2015 (the day on which the first quake occurred). Their analysis will focus on media, literary and cultural production ranging from newspaper op-ed columns to poetry, songs and urban graffiti (with a particular emphasis on material produced in Nepali), and on interviews and focus-group discussions in both provincial and metropolitan locations. Second, the project will ask who it is that decides which elements of an aid-dependent country's destroyed physical heritage is worth restoring. Early photographs of earthquake damage showed heaps of rubble in Kathmandu's world heritage sites. This gave the impression of extensive devastation in the capital and led to an early media focus on the loss of cultural heritage in the Kathmandu Valley. It seemed to be generally assumed that the restoration of the Valley's historic built environment would take place uncontentiously, and that the international community would contribute to the cost of this restoration. However, the discussion is only just beginning of what the priorities of the restoration project will be, or how they will be set. The project will investigate the extent to which the selection and prioritisation of sites and buildings for restoration is driven by what is held locally to be most 'dear', and to what extent by the evaluations of external donors and heritage experts. Third, the project will draw historical comparisons between the sociocultural and political impacts of the 2015 quakes and those of the major quakes that struck Nepal during earlier periods of political and cultural transition in 1833 and 1934. A handful of brief accounts of these earlier quakes and their aftermath and impact have been published in Nepali and English (eg. Joshi 2015, Rana 2013), and several Nepali journalists referred to these accounts in their reporting on the 2015 disaster. However, little of this material has been utilised by scholars writing in English, and archives in London, Delhi and Kathmandu contain contemporaneous accounts that have not been published or analysed in any detail. This study across the three strands aims to determine what changes in Nepali society take and have taken place after a major disaster. Do the rules and conventions that governed life and political decision-making before a disaster continue to be valued in its aftermath? What kinds of change occur as a result of such a disaster? Which of these changes is temporary and which is permanent?

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-AH_P003648_1

Start Date:

2017-02-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£576,418.71


GCRF Translation Awards

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

The Warwick GCRF GRTA will deliver two focussed interventions, fully aligned with our strategy, in Nepal (LDC) and Brazil (UMIC). Work Package 1 with an initial focus on Nepal, is a programme to produce ""Affordable High-Quality Hearing Aids for LMICs"" in collaboration with the INF Ear Hospital in Pokhara Nepal, which will finalise development and test the world's first hearing aid (HA) that meets both the WHO's target unit cost (3% of GDP/capita) for low-middle income countries (LMICs) and UK NHS clinical standards. HA chipsets account for approximately 90% of the total cost (Bill of Materials) of a HA. The novel approach taken by the Warwick team has been the re-purposing of chipsets recently developed for ultra-low power implementation of 'always on' artificial intelligence algorithms. When combined with proprietary algorithms these new generation of chips are now sufficiently advanced to be capable of competing with specialist Application Specific HA chips at reduced cost. Specific to investment from this award the project will (1) achieve a reduction in the cost of Hearing Aid (HA) chipsets; (2) develop an FDA and CE certified device (the recognised global standards for medical devices); (3) in collaboration with the INF Ear Hospital in Pokhara Nepal, develop HA fitting procedures that are congruent with the availability and skills of clinical staff in LMICs, (4) expand ear care services to rural communities in Nepal. At the present time the incidence of hearing loss is approximately two-to-three times that in high-income countries, the WHO predict that by 2030, hearing loss will become the World's 7th highest burden of disease ahead of HIV, neonatal infections and diarrheal disease. HA technology leads to greater financial independence and improve access to mainstream education addressing UN SDG 1 (End Poverty) and SDG 4 (Universal Education) and also aligns with World Health Assembly resolution WHA60.29 , which urges member states ""To collect, verify, update and exchange information on health technologies, in particular medical devices, as an aid to their prioritization of needs and allocation of resources"". Work package 2 is targeted at developing, deploying and evaluating a mobile application and community-based intervention to increase the resilience of flood-prone communities around several cities across the territory in Brazil, in close partnership with Cemaden, the National Disaster Monitoring and Early-Warning Centre in Brazil. This work package builds upon the results of a previous Global Research Challenges Fund award in which the partners have developed and piloted a methodology to engage schools, flood-prone communities and local governments in the production and circulation of flood-related data to improve flood resilience. This methodology has been successfully piloted and is being currently applied in two schools of the cities of São Paulo and Rio Branco in Brazil and there is a need to expand this to other flood-prone communities of 43000 areas in 1000 different municipalities across Brazil. Specific to investment from this award the project will be (1) development of a mobile app to allow school students and citizens living in flood-prone communities to generate data about local impacts of flooding, whilst fostering social learning on flood risks and adaptive strategies.(2) development of guidelines and materials for schools and local stakeholders to implement flood resilience interventions in prone communities based on the mobile app and on the integration of this with contents related to climate change adaptation and disaster early-warning of the school curriculum. (3) roll out the mobile app and interventions for the flood-prone communities to 81 schools across Brazil. (4) Perform a rigorous monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the community-based research interventions to improve flood resilience, and disseminate results within Latin America.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_T015683_1

Start Date:

2019-10-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£757,928.43


Transforming Political Capabilities for Equitable Resilience

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

Nepal and Thailand offer examples of the rapid urbanisation that is underway across the Global South. Urbanisation is dependent on systems of infrastructure that deliver core services, such as water, energy, and solid waste management. Infrastructure investment and governance decisions thus play a central role in urban inequality, distributing access to services and associated opportunities for human flourishing. As in many places, in Nepal and Thailand significant hope is invested in urbanisation, with growth in urban growth central to a vision of increased economic opportunity and a rebalancing of the economy beyond the capital cities. Yet despite accelerating rates of urbanisation, policy remains limited. The majority of secondary cities have continued to expand in area, with population growth frequently dominated by individuals and households moving into informal settlements where they are marginalised from opportunities, basic services and decision making. Those in informal settlements are also particularly at risk from hazards such as earthquakes, flooding and landslides. The risks from these hazards are routinely understood to reside in particular locations, such as in zones identified to be vulnerable to flooding or in buildings susceptible to earthquake shocks. Yet in urban areas, infrastructure, institutions and political relations create a complex web of connections across scales. It is through disruptions and failures in these underpinning urban systems that hazards are made manifest and the impacts distributed - for example when a landslide in one location disrupts access to clean water in a downstream community. Today, resilience dominates contemporary urban disaster and climate policy initiatives and investments. While the popularity of resilience continues to increase, there are challenges. At a conceptual level, resilience overlooks the significance of power and social relations in determining who is made resilient to what risks. In practice, the focus of urban policy remains on investment to fill the 'infrastructure deficit', overlooking the way in which existing urban systems place different groups of people at risk. As a consequence, the application of resilience to policy and practice in urban settings frequently reproduces or deepens existing patterns of risk, inequality and marginality. In this project, our vision is that urban communities are able to secure their interests in resilience planning and investments, enabling access to services critical to wellbeing in a manner that recognises and responds to the risk of failure in urban systems in the event of natural hazards. To do this we bring together scholars and practitioners in different disciplines from the UK, Nepal and Thailand. We will develop new tools and apply them in Nepal and Thailand to reveal two critical urban phenomena. First, how narratives of risk and resilience can sustain inequality in access to services. And second, how the complexity of urban systems creates risk of failures in service provision with uneven impacts on residents. Our tools will enable those working with marginal communities to identify strategic alliances and entry-points for engagement, opening spaces for dialogue in the city that generate new knowledge and narratives, securing decision making power for marginalised groups and anchoring resilience in the complexity of urban risk creation.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-ES_T00259X_1

Start Date:

2019-11-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£502,655.53


Determinants of health in rural Nepal: Utilising PHASE Nepal data to investigate social inequalities in health and healthcare amongst under-5s

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

This project aims to increase academic understanding, and develop appropriate options for responding to, inequalities in health and healthcare amongst under-5 children in remote rural areas of Nepal. These continuing inequalities represent a significant challenge for Nepal's efforts to promote social and economic development and meet the SDG targets. Whilst it is widely known that a variety of social and geographic factors contribute to determining health outcomes (including gender, caste/ethnicity and region), the currently available data lacks the degree of granularity to enable a robust exploration of the relationships between these various forms of inequality and i) health status; ii) utilisation of health services; and iii) quality/appropriateness of treatment received. Whilst the existing data published by the Government of Nepal is available only in an aggregated format, PHASE Nepal - a high-profile and highly-respected NGO that supports government health facilities in some of the most remote areas of the country - has circa 50,000 records of health facility visits by under-5s that have not previously been analysed as they currently exist only in paper format. The project proposed here will allow, for the first time, for the digitisation and rigorous analysis of this individual patient-level data to further understand inequalities and to address a series of Research Questions related to the country's social and geographic inequalities: RQ1: How do geography, age, gender, ethnicity and caste affect the nutrition status of under-5 children presenting in remote health facilities of Nepal? RQ2: Is diagnosis and treatment for malnutrition affected by geography, and child's age, gender, ethnicity and caste? RQ3: How do geography, and child's age, gender, ethnicity and caste affect health-seeking behaviours and utilisation of health services? RQ4: How do geography, and child's age, gender, ethnicity and caste affect the treatment that under-5s receive at health centres? The project builds upon a strong existing relationship between the University of Sheffield and PHASE Nepal. A previous collaboration, funded by IAA funds, allowed for the delivery of research methods training for PHASE Nepal staff and a preliminary analysis of PHASE's data assets and data management strategies. The project proposed here - which brings together social scientists and public health experts to understand health inequalities in their social context, and to develop policy and practice recommendations - was co-designed by PHASE Nepal staff members Dr. Pohl and Dr. Baidya and the Sheffield-based members of the team, ensuring that the research will be valuable to and actionable by PHASE Nepal themselves, as well as being of value to other health system stakeholders (not least Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population) and to a wider community of academic researchers.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-ES_T010436_1

Start Date:

2019-11-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£128,666.98


The use of creative arts to engage Nepali schools with antimicrobial-resistance and create positive behaviour change on health-seeking behaviours.

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

This project will apply the methodology and learnings from AH/R005869/1 to a new audience, children aged 9-11 in Nepali schools. This group emerged as key actors within health seeking behaviours including the purchasing of non-prescription antimicrobials in our original project, hence all partners wish to modify the initial project to reach this group. This will involve community co-production of an education programme based upon existing community engagement methodology which allowed Nepali communities to explore their relationship with the issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through participatory filmmaking. AMR is a major One Health threat, particularly acute in developing countries such as Nepal due to growing populations, limited health infrastructure and the accessibility of antimicrobials without medical advice or prescription. While the previous project engaged adult participants, our original research project highlighted the key role that Children in Nepal play in AMR-related health-seeking behaviour. They are frequently the member of the family sent to purchase non-prescription antimicrobials. The misuse of these drugs exacerbates AMR, but public understanding of this risk is low. Children especially have limited AMR knowledge or empowerment to change harmful behaviours because conversations regarding AMR are mainly held at Ministerial level and the risks of AMR are not currently taught in schools. Our co-produced education programme will use participatory arts to encourage children to share how their behaviours interact with AMR. This will significantly extend the community-level reach of the previous project, allowing children in Nepal to develop knowledge and confidence to facilitate changes in their own AMR behaviour, and spread this message through their communities. In preparation for this education programme, the project will invest heavily in training community volunteers as facilitators. This will involve the re-engagement of AH/R005869/1 participants and the use of their original outputs (participatory films), both are integral to the community engagement aspect of our educational programme. They maximise the value of existing community resources, ensure Global-South ownership of the project, and provide local-contextualisation to help young people understand this complex 'One Health' issue. Existing AH/R005869/1 films will be used as educational resources and AH/R005869/1 participants will be trained as Community AMR Champions to facilitate the educational programme. Training will enhance their AMR knowledge and confidence whilst at the same time developing their skills in public speaking, working with children (including safeguarding and unconscious bias) and their understanding of participatory arts methodology. The training programme will then reach out to schools engaging head teachers, school nurses and subject specific teachers with the same training programme. Supported by Community AMR Champions, these participants will then co-produce the final content of the AMR education programme to be delivered in their school. This project is designed to be scalable. Regular debriefing sessions with participants, robust evaluations of the both the education programme and facilitator training package will provide a rich dataset to assess the impact of community engagement and participatory arts methodology for creating behaviour change with regard to AMR. This will allow the creation of best-practice resources (manuals), allowing other practitioners to repeat this intervention. It will, moreover, allow the original research team to continue to engage the Nepali Ministry of Health and Population as it develops its national AMR action plan.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-AH_T007915_1

Start Date:

2020-02-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£93,503.51


JustEd: Education as and for Environmental, Epistemic and Transitional justice to enable Sustainable Development

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

The proposed project aims to understand how secondary school learners' knowledge and experiences of justice act as drivers for the Sustainable Development Goals. Specifically, it examines three types of justice in education and how they relate to learners' intended actions with respect to SDG 13 (climate action) and SDG 16 (peace, justice and strong institutions): - Environmental justice, which seeks to balance human and environmental rights in order that both might exist sustainably, recognising the unfair distribution of the effects of climate change. - Epistemic justice, which values different knowledges and the peoples who hold them, working against the exclusion of multiple ways of understanding the world; and - Transitional justice, which repairs wrongs of the past, acknowledging the importance of responsibility and reconciliation for possibilities of future peacebuilding. By focusing on these forms of justice and the relationships between them, we extend and challenge traditional conceptions of justice in education, which are mainly rooted in social and distributional understandings of justice. The project will focus on both ""education for justice"" and ""education as justice."" The first focus requires an examination of how different forms of justice are taught across educational curricula, while the second looks at how social practice in schools and classrooms reflect and embody (or do not) these different forms of justice. Our study is undertaken in secondary schools in three global contexts where these forms of justice are particularly relevant: Western Nepal, Andean Peru and Northern Uganda. These research contexts all have recent experience with conflict, are directly reliant on the natural environment and subsistence agriculture, and are ethnically diverse societies with multiple linguistic communities. The study involves three phases which combine quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. The first phase of the project involves qualitative data collection through ethnographic work in schools, including interviews and participative arts-based focus group discussions in which learners draw images that illustrate their experiences with environmental, epistemic and transitional justice. This phase also includes an analysis of education policy documents, curricula, and related documents such as textbooks and examinations. In the second phase of the project, analysis of qualitative data is used to create a questionnaire that is administered to learners on tablet computers. The questionnaire measures learners' curriculum knowledge relating to these forms of justice and SDG 13 and 16; their experiences of justice at school; their attitudes to towards justice expressed through responses to scenarios presented in short videos and images, and their intended actions and behaviours in relation to SDG 13 and 16. It will result in a quantitative dataset with approximately 6,000 responses, which will be analyzed through structural equation modelling. The third phase of the project consists of a synthesis of these two components and the development of an analytical framework to articulate what transitional, epistemic and environmental justice would look like in a secondary education system. While outcomes will be communicated to academic audiences through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications, the project will achieve a broader impact on educational policy and practice through a series of targeted policy briefs and stakeholder impact events at both the regional and international level. Working with other GCRF-funded projects in the contexts of study, the project will also engage in knowledge exchange to synthesize findings and increase impact.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-ES_T004851_1

Start Date:

2020-02-01

Activity Status:

Implementation

Total Budget:

£709,749.97


Sourcing Community Solutions to Antibiotic Resistance in Nepal

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

This project will develop, pilot test and evaluate a high-quality intervention aimed at preventing and controlling antibiotic resistance in Nepal. Community-led solutions to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance will be promoted through a participatory digital film-making intervention that will lead to a health-education campaign within communities, and to an advocacy campaign targeting policy makers. This will directly support the delivery of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, in particular SDG 3: 'ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages'. In Nepal, antibiotic-treatable infections are a significant public health burden. A recent review of studies examining antibiotic resistance to common bacterial diseases in Nepal indicates that antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to public health (Basnyat 2015: 6-10). Indeed globally, as the World Health Organisation warns, ""without urgent action we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill"" (WHO 2016). Although the development of new medicines is critical, without behaviour change antibiotic resistance will continue to be a major threat to population health. Our project seeks rigorously to evaluate the potential of participatory arts interventions in supporting such behaviour change. The project has three phases. Phase One will focus on the development of methodologies of co-production and participatory film-making, a health-education campaign, and an advocacy campaign. Phase Two will focus on pilot-testing the participatory film-making, health-education campaign and advocacy campaign in one urban and one rural setting, and on evaluating the approach for reach, implementation fidelity, and acceptability to a variety of stakeholders. Phase Three will focus on refining the approach prior to scale-up, evaluation of outcomes and impact. Our specific intervention consists of four stages: 1) The co-production of short comics (drawing on the 'grass-roots comics for development' methodology) which identify critical barriers to preventing and controlling antibiotic resistance at the individual, household and community levels, and which develop community-led solutions to overcoming those barriers. 2) The development of these comics into documentary films that can be utilised both as health-education tools, which are appropriately tailored for the locality, and as advocacy tools, which are aimed at policy makers at the district and national levels; 3) The utilisation of the documentary films in a health-education campaign within localities; 4) The delivery of an advocacy campaign at the district and national levels. Working at the intersection of humanities, social sciences and public health, and bringing together the expertise of The Centre for World Cinemas and Digital Cultures (Paul Cooke, PI), the Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development (James Newell and Rebecca King, Co-Is) and HERD International (Sushil Baral, Sudeepa Khanal, Co-Is), and working in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Population in Nepal, this partnership will pilot an innovative approach to dealing with a significant public-health issue. Drawing on participatory-arts methodologies of co-production with community stakeholders, we aim to explore the powerful socio-cultural, political and economic issues at play in the misuse of antibiotics and support the development of community-led solutions to this issue, thus helping to increase the effectiveness of, and adding significant value to, government-led campaigns. The project will, moreover, help build capacity for the use of participatory arts as a tool for public-health campaigning, synergising the expertise of the project team to produce an outcome that none of the partners could achieve on their own.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-AH_R005869_1

Start Date:

2017-10-01

Activity Status:

Finalisation

Total Budget:

£185,608.41


Negotiating the 'paradox of participation' to increase the social equity of participatory ecological monitoring in Nepal

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

Inequalities in access to and control over benefits of natural resources threaten to undermine advances made in participatory development over the past 30 years. Participatory ecological monitoring is proposed as a backbone of new payments for ecosystem services projects and carbon trading schemes like REDD+, and is already integral to sustainable forest management through Nepal's community forestry programme. The Nepalese government believe that forest carbon trading could be a significant contributor to development in Nepal in the future, but acknowledges that all forestry schemes need to better promote national goals of poverty alleviation. This Fellowship responds to this urgent challenge by engaging practitioners and policy makers in Nepalese forestry to co-create approaches to participatory ecological monitoring which focus explicitly on the goal of social equity. My PhD thesis exposed the social outcomes of one such project in Nepal, finding that it served - unintentionally - to reinforce existing processes of marginalisation based on gender, caste and literacy. It sought to understand how this 'tyranny of participation' could be transformed, suggesting that this will only occur through meaningful engagement with deeper cultural, political and institutional contexts. This Fellowship will build on my thesis to reach out to those across Nepal's community forestry programme who deliver participatory monitoring projects on the ground, and who develop the policy space within which they take place. It will engage them in a dialogue around the paradox that participatory projects can in fact be disempowering, and build on that critical reflection to co-design approaches and policies which pay attention to the fundamental factors critical to delivering social equity. This Fellowship will be dedicated to engaging practitioners and policy-makers in Nepal, and beyond, in a critical dialogue aimed at promoting the social equity of participatory forest monitoring projects on the ground. Through these collaborations, I would seek to build on my PhD to: Build a global overview of the ways in which social equity and benefit sharing are currently considered in participatory ecological monitoring projects, and how they are conceptualised by academics working in this sphere Bring together projects involving participatory approaches to monitoring in Nepal (either as part of sustainable forest management or carbon-related assessment) and provide them with a space for; critical reflection on the current framing and assessment of equity and benefit-sharing, for sharing experiences and expertise in this area, for co-designing procedures to promote the social equity of on-going and future projects, and for monitoring the challenges to implementation as part of an iterative design process To take the experiences from Nepal to a global academic and non-academic audience and engage them in the lessons to be learnt Build international networks of academics, practitioners and policy-makers, through which I can create opportunities for future research in this area and secure a successful academic career A GCRF Fellowship would have a vitally important, lasting impact on my academic career. Since completing my PhD I have proven myself able to produce high quality papers, to successfully branch out into complementary fields of study, and to initiate collaborations with colleagues in academia and beyond. A Fellowship would allow me to cement my expertise and influence as an academic in the field of community-based conservation, to build my capacity to collaborate with stakeholders to co-create impacts, and to continue doing so into the future in order to respond to on-going global challenges.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-ES_P009581_1

Start Date:

2017-01-01

Activity Status:

Finalisation

Total Budget:

£0.60


Can We Rebuild the Kasthamandap? Promoting Post-Disaster Rescue Excavations, Salvage and Subsurface Heritage Protection Protocols in Kathmandu

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

The earthquakes which struck Nepal in 2015 caused a human catastrophe. Not only did they inflict loss of life and livelihoods, they destroyed substantial parts of Kathmandu's unique UNESCO World Heritage site. The monuments of the city were not only ornate structures but were living monuments playing central roles in the daily lives of thousands of Nepalis. Furthermore, their rehabilitation is of economic importance as they represent a major source of foreign currency and employment through tourism. Indeed, the Government of Nepal's 'Cultural Heritage Post-Disaster Needs Assessment 2015' (PDNA) estimates that losses relating to damage and livelihoods amount to over US$23 million. Whilst there is a strong political, social and economic desire to reconstruct rapidly, it is critical that post-disaster rescue archaeology is combined with reconstruction. Indeed, plans to reconstruct temples on existing ruined platforms must first be preceded by a phase of rescue excavations to evaluate the subsurface stability of foundations with detailed recording and scientific analysis as few architectural studies have considered them. These will provide a greater understanding of how monuments developed and facilitate their enhanced rehabilitation and future protection. There is also an imperative for information and data sharing and capacity building as damage has already been inflicted on monuments within the UNESCO World Heritage site during the post-disaster pre-reconstruction phase led by architects and engineers unaware of the heritage beneath their feet. Indeed, having discussed challenges and opportunities with stakeholders in Kathmandu, it is clear that the current focus on the rehabilitation of architectural superstructures has resulted in additional damage to Kathmandu's World Heritage site. This has largely gone unnoticed as it entailed damage to subsurface archaeological heritage, even though this heritage is protected by national legislation. Emergency interventions badly damaged some buildings but, whilst they were driven by recovering the injured and dead, more recent damage relates to non-emergency activities, including engineering contractors cutting exploratory trenches and drilling soil cores, workmen cutting foundations, soldiers deliberately collapsing monuments and engineers dismantling others. All of these events had a common absence of in-situ archaeological recording and the absence of consultation with trained professional archaeologists beforehand. This absence is paralleled in the PDNA 2015, which fails to note the risk to the vulnerable subsurface archaeological heritage from rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. More recent documents, such as the draft 'Conservation Guidelines for Post 2015 Earthquake Rehabilitation: Conservation Guidelines' (CGPERCG2015) recognise this risk but need strengthening. It is worth noting that this situation is common across South Asia and there is a capacity deficit in urban and rescue archaeology, despite being located in a region whose built heritage is prone to risks from both seismic events and rapid urbanisation. Following requests from the Government of Nepal and ICOMOS (Nepal) and responding to AHRC's FoF 'Notice for International Development', our aim is to build on the success of the 'Outstanding' graded AHRC-funded research in Sri Lanka to conduct a practical field training workshop with non-academic collaborators to focus on learning from the evaluation of the foundations of the collapsed Kasthamandap in Kathmandu and as well as on salvaging material to assist post-earthquake plans for its reconstruction and to offer an exemplar for strengthening and disseminating post-disaster subsurface heritage protocols within post-earthquake Kathmandu.

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-AH_P006256_1

Start Date:

2016-10-01

Activity Status:

Finalisation

Total Budget:

£74,716.85


Promoting Safer Building - Using science, technology, communication and humanitarian practice to support family and community self-recovery

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS)

Poorly constructed buildings are often the largest cause of injury, trauma and death in the event of a natural disaster. Most families rebuild houses relying on their own resources, with little or no external support. They ""self-recover"". An analysis of statistics shows that the impact of aid agencies on housing recovery rarely reaches more than 20% of affected families and is frequently in single figures (Parrack, 2014). Moreover, much of that support is in the form of temporary housing intended to last only a few years. Therefore, we know that 80%, or more, self-recover. The potential impact is huge: any one emergency can leave hundreds of thousands of families homeless, with women and girls disproportionately affected (Bradshaw, 2015). As things stand, these homes are too often rebuilt using the same pre-disaster bad practice that caused so much death, injury and economic damage in the first place. Currently, shelter professionals lack understanding of the recovery process and therefore of inherent opportunities for appropriate and effective support. Families choose when and how to rebuild based on little-understood circumstances. Empowering them in the exercise of informed choice is integral to assisting self-recovery. There are neither tools nor knowledge to effectively support this at scale. The challenge for the humanitarian community, as well as national and local organisations, is to support this inevitable process of self-recovery. While efforts are made to include Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into many emergency and recovery shelter interventions, these activities are often very narrow in scope, frequently limited to the printing of simple guidance sheets. These have very little impact on resilience of self-built housing stock. We know that simply informing people about risk - poor engineering, construction, and hazard risk - does not result in changed behaviour (van Wijk 1995), or in better, safer homes and communities. We also know there are no universal solutions. Evidence from post-disaster needs-assessments shows that families rapidly rebuild their homes with little or no knowledge of safer building techniques or the environmental factors that may increase their vulnerability. However there is evidence that demand for technical assistance can be very high soon after a rapid onset disaster. Only 12% of respondents interviewed for a CARE Nepal survey were able to name any techniques for improving seismic performance of a house, but 60% listed building safety as a top concern. Currently, the international aid community lacks skills to adequately contextualise each unique situation, arrive rapidly and reliably at key technical messages and effectively transmit and promote those messages in a way that allows informed choice and ensures maximum acceptance by the affected population. Current post-disaster programmes do not systematically or effectively address the motivations (want), resources (can) and abilities (know-how) of beneficiaries in the process of self-recovery. Through the multidisciplinary research of scientists, engineers and humanitarian practitioners, this proposal addresses the needs of those who self-build. It specifically addresses two important gaps: - Technical best practice - what key construction and siting messages will make a substantial improvement to self-building in different contexts? - Changing current practice - getting the message across; what communication and promotion methods really work; learning from current technology transfer and public education approaches. References: Parrack, C; Flinn, B and Passey, M (2014): Open House International van Wijk, C; Murre, T (1995): UNICEF Bradshaw, S., Fordham, M., (2015): Elsevier

Project identifier:

GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-NE_P016200_1

Start Date:

2016-11-01

Activity Status:

Finalisation

Total Budget:

£159,486.59




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