Search Results for: "University of Southampton"
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMIC. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMIC can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMIC. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMIC in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice.
GCRF - Building REearch Capacity for sustainable water and food security In drylands of sub-saharan Africa (BRECcIA)"UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overall aim of this proposal is to develop research capacity and strengthen existing research capabilities in three sub-Saharan countries (Kenya, Malawi, and Ghana) in the related areas of water and food security. We will develop the partnerships and collaboration necessary to deliver impactful research to inform and influence policy and practice, and ensure that capabilities are sustained and propagated beyond the project. We will focus on capacities in technical research skills, research management, and professional development, and establish a framework of benefit to future researchers. The overall objective of the proposed work is to strengthen research capacity and capabilities in institutions in three SSA countries to carry out impactful research that leads to positive policy/practice change for sustainable water and food security, and to ensure that this capacity is sustained and propagated throughout and after the project. The specific objectives of the proposed project are: 1) To enable partner institutions to understand the barriers and enablers to high quality scientific research, and to co-develop a pipeline of capacity-building activities to strengthen research technical and management skills, professional skills, and professional development. 2) To develop research networks across African institutions around water and food security, and to leverage these to co-design pertinent research questions on key global challenges. 3) To engage in collaborative research programmes that advance knowledge of food and water security in partner countries, identifies solutions to water and food security challenges, and produce a new cohort of trained researchers in this field that are capable of leading and shaping the direction of future research. 4) To ensure impactful research that influences policy/practice through engagement with regional climate, hydrological and agricultural information providers, and with stakeholders and policy makers at national and local levels to empower local communities. 5) To facilitate sustained research capacity within partner institutions after the end of the project and to provide opportunities to self-propagate capacity to a broader set of institutions and researchers across Africa. Water and food security research challenges are inherently inter-disciplinary and require a broad set of transferable research skills and approaches. We therefore envisage that addressing the proposed objectives will be a demonstrator and provide a framework for research capacity building in other institutions and fields. We will explore the potential to translate this into a formal framework on research capacity development in developing countries and opportunities to market this as an embedded component of research programmes.
GCRF: DAMS 2.0: Design and assessment of resilient and sustainable interventions in water-energy-food-environment Mega-SystemsUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Our aim is of a world in which all DAC list countries make rapid progress to the achievement of the SDGs and the delivery of emissions reductions necessary for the Paris Climate Change Agreement by selecting, designing, financing, and managing dams to meet local, national and regional development needs and preferences. To fulfil this aim we set the following objective: to transform how new dams and systems of new and existing dams are assessed, selected, designed, and operated to provide water, food, and energy security for all. This goal will be achieved through both research (the creation of new knowledge) and capacity development (raised capacities of partner and non-partner organisations), underpinned by development of shared interdisciplinary tools that integrate engineering (on system modelling, dam selection, design and operation), social sciences (on economic, social and political and processes and impacts), physical sciences (climate, hydrology, ecology) and agricultural sciences (crop production systems). Our specific objectives are: 1 To deepen understanding of how nexus system interventions (new dams, or systems of dams, and their operation) cascade through socio-economic, engineered, ecological and political systems, and use this knowledge to help stakeholders develop and negotiate solutions that are economically, socially and environmentally beneficial. Specifically, we will replace the current approach of designing dams in isolation with a whole systems-based approach that combines conceptual and numerical models of socio-economic/natural/engineered systems with novel decision-analysis techniques. 2 To enhance the technical and institutional capacity of partner and non-partner researchers and policy-makers to ensure that dam decision-making leads to economically, socially, and environmentally desirable outcomes. Specifically, we seek to move from 'cut and paste' 'Terms of Reference' documents (ToRs) when dam-building projects are put out to tender to ToRs crafted to achieve development outcomes that are sustainable and equitable. 3 To create a cross-disciplinary network of researchers and policy-influencers and inter-disciplinary tools for dam decision-making globally, which will continue to operate after programme completion and that can transfer learning to the 'next generation' of nexus system planners world-wide. Reaching those specific objectives will be done so as to be able to satisfactorily respond to the following urgent questions which are the heart of our Nexus system research agenda on dams: 1 What's happening now? Who is selecting, designing, and financing dams and systems of dams today; what approaches and tools do they use; and, what shapes and incentivises decisions about dam selection and operation? 2 What should be improved? What technical and political knowledge is required so that new dams can be selected and designed to maximise and appropriately allocate benefits, promote resilient and sustainable development, and minimise conflict and socio-ecological loss; what decision processes need improving; and, should a wider set of stakeholders be invited into the decision process? 3 How? What skills, approaches, processes, tools and academic/professional networks would help create a new generation of engineers, applied social scientists and policy analysts in the UK, in cases study countries and in other countries to achieve our mission?
The main objective of SAFER is to tackle global development challenges in Nepal through engineering research for Sustainable infrastructure and Disaster Resilience through a multi-disciplinary consortium of geotechnical and structural engineers, engineering seismologists, ICT experts, earth scientists from academia, social scientists, policy makers financial experts, and humanitarian aid stakeholders. This is achieved by targeting the following objectives: (a) building upon the existing data, processes and strategies to develop a holistic framework, in collaboration with key international partners and local stakeholders for improving the seismic resilience of educational communities. (b) developing an innovative, low-cost, sustainable, locally sourced technique for construction of new school buildings and co-produce low-cost/high-performance retrofit schemes. (c) making use of two world class test facilities in the UK (at the Universities of Bristol and Southampton) to provide experimental justification for the current construction practices. (d) integrating the existing data, advanced methodologies into an easy to use mobile system for the stakeholders. (e) condensing the new knowledge into guidelines for local engineers and stakeholders. (f) organising an extensive scheme of interaction among the international consortium, the stakeholders, the engineering and educational communities to facilitate two-way knowledge transfer, enabling co-development of sustainable solutions that change the current state-of-practice in Nepal. Thus benefitting the people of Nepal. It is noted that the above objectives will be met by drawing upon existing collaborations, namely, the School Earthquake Safety Program (SESP) between the Department of Education, NSET, Arup International Development and the World Bank, the existing MoU between the Fuzhou, Roma Tre and Tribhuvan University, the long term collaboration between the Universities of Bristol and Southampton, the joint NSF-USAid program of California Institute of Technology and University Buffalo at SUNY in USA and the established cooperation of the latter with the University of Bristol. It is also linking together three existing EPSRC Global Challenge Institutional Sponsorships to the University of Bristol focusing specifically Nepal.
Redressing Gendered Health Inequalities of Displaced Women and Girls in contexts of Protracted Crisis in Central and South America (ReGHID)UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overarching objective of ReGHID is to improve the delivery of SRH and SRHR of reproductive age women (aged 25-49) and adolescent girls (15-24) in situations of protracted displacement, to engender both evidence-based advocacy and concrete policy proposals for improving coverage of SRH services and developing responsive and inclusive durable solutions for wellbeing and development of all. ReGHID will: - Develop new quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence on the impact of displacement on the SRH needs of women and adolescent girls in Central America and Venezuela (WPs 1-3) - Co-produce research with non-governmental and civil society organisations working with displaced women and adolescent girls to uncover the lived experiences of their right to health in relation to SRH, and the strategies of displaced women and adolescent girls deploy to meet those needs, including from public and non-state providers in places of transit and settlement (WP2) - Co-produce a holistic understanding of the pressure that the SRH needs of displaced women and adolescents place on local health systems in places of settlement, including an analysis of the resources and capacity required to meet SRH needs and rights (WP3, WP4) - Analyse whether and how health systems respond to, compromise or deny SRH needs and rights for migrant women and girls in places of settlement (WP4) - Co-develop with health service researchers, local and regional stakeholders a 'Comprehensive Healthcare Model', proposing concrete changes at local (public) health system level to deliver gender-responsive and rights-based services (WP4) - Co-develop and implement with key local stakeholders (including associations of women and adolescent girls, NGOs, and the OIM), strategies for guiding planning for the effective delivery of displaced women and adolescent girls' SRHR through 'the AGAPE guide': 1) Assessment of female displaced migrant SRH needs and SRHR, 2) Guidance in identifying and accessing services in destinations, 3) Assistance in processes of movement and sites of transit and settlement, 4) Protection from wrongs and harms that impact on SRH, 5) Enabling self-reliance and movement to durable solution (WP5, WP6) Research fieldwork and impact activities will be conducted in key places of settlement of women and girls from Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador in Tapachula, Mexico; Venezuelan migrants in Manaus and Roraima, Brazil, and Norte de Santander, Colombia; and places of return after protracted displacement in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula in Honduras and San Salvador in El Salvador. The project will be delivered by an interdisciplinary and international consortium that unites leading academics from health economics, political science, demography and social statistics, international development, human rights, gender studies, anthropology, migration and public health. Participants are drawn from leading research institutions in Central and South America region (Honduras, El Salvador, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico), the Universities of Southampton and York. It benefits from the participation of key regional intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations including the Council of Ministries of Health for Central America (COMISCA), the regional office of the International Organisation for Migrations (IOM), Medicos Sin Frontera (MSF, Mexico), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and FLACSO/Costa Rica. Outreach and impact will be achieved through a set of activities in partnerships with NGOs and IOM embedded in their routine work and working directly with displaced women and adolescent girls throughout the work packages.
FORTIS UNUM: CLUSTERING MINI-GRID NETWORKS TO WIDEN ENERGY ACCESS AND ENHANCE UTILITY NETWORK RESILIENCEUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
This project will build on the extensive experience of the investigators in the area of energy access, mini grids and networks. This includes the extensive experience of research and development in delivering modular PV driven power generation and distribution systems in rural Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). This includes the six mini-grids (affecting ~ 20,000 people) in Cameroon, Kenya and Uganda with collaboration with rural electrification agencies and the design of multi MW grid networks in Mauritania coupled with projects delivered by partners from Kenya and Uganda. In this project, we will build on such collaborations to create new and appropriate knowledge, and capacity building, focussing on sustainable local energy networks. These include off-grid networks, their ability to work collaboratively with other small networks or with the national grid and their transition to the national grid. This proposal is structured to test and model these systems to enable African households to thrive through optimised, flexible and upgradeable mini grid networks appropriate for growth in developing countries. This will be achieved through the following objectives: 1. Develop a clear understanding and knowledge of how sustainable energy technology platforms can be optimally designed to take into account scenarios of load variations to provide replicable, efficient, resilient and reliable networks in a standalone mode. 2. Explore implications to network sizing and infrastructure due to supply needs, tariffs, metering and linking these to efficiency requirements and resilience taking into account regulatory frameworks in the two partner countries and other SSA states. 3. Understanding intermittent islanding operation of mini-grid networks and demand side management approaches to mini-grid network stability - through field measurements and modelling. 4. Explore and model options to cluster mini-grids to form wider networks with greater stability and lower Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE). Assess national scale implications to energy access, and network sizing, resilience and stability. 5. Critical assessment and scenario modelling of mini grid clusters connected to the utility network and how these can be utilised to provide high stability mini-grids to support the near end of line utility network. 6. Review and augment guidelines to support mini grids, connectivity to national grids taking into current understanding and enhancing through the planned studies and outputs under this project.
A Step Change in LMIC Prosthetics Provision through Computer Aided Design, Actimetry and Database TechnologiesUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
At its World Congress in May 2017 the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO) agreed that one development is needed above all else to enhance prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) service provision: data. The proposed programme of research focuses on Lower and Middle Income Country (LMIC) user-defined technology to transform P&O service provision by enabling the remote collection of data rich measures. Combining novel web science and biomedical engineering, we will perform fundamental research to enable development of: 1) a suite of digital assessment tools to enhance patient records through biomechanical and health status measurements, e.g. 3D residual limb scanning, actimetry, video and culture-specific functional and quality-of-life outcome measures; and 2) a portable, asynchronous digital patient record and data collection system to enable these data to be accessed and collected remotely, allowing healthcare professionals to deliver P&O services in rural and isolated communities. These tools will enable researchers and clinicians to create a data foundation, to design and evaluate their practice and future research, ensure the most appropriate technologies are used and that the most effective use is made of limited healthcare resources. We have defined the following objectives, ranked in order of priority. These include: 1) a critical and user-informed analysis of the clinical, biomechanical, quality of life and cost effectiveness data required for prosthetic limb provision in Cambodia; 2) to investigate digital tools to collect anatomical (3D shape and colour scanning), biomechanical (actimetry and video gait analysis), and health status data (function and quality of life measures), specific to Cambodian healthcare providers and service users; 3) to conceive a first-of-kind asynchronously connected distributed database architecture, with associated data security measures, to enable digital patient casenotes to be collected in remote or isolated communities; 4) to establish what is the minimal conventional casenote dataset with digital artefacts from the aforementioned measurement tools; 5) to define data interpretation methods to extract relevant prosthetic assessment, design and functional use information for clinicians; and 6) to produce a value-based implementation plan based on business modelling principles, both as this project's pathway to impact and as a toolset to help translate these technologies into other LMICs, and for future use supporting the implementation of other GCRF prosthetics and orthotics research.
The overall aim of the project is to reduce diarrhoeal disease in urban off-grid populations through safer, affordable vended water, whilst minimising the entry of unmanaged plastic waste into the environment. Specific objectives are to inform urban policy concerning informal water and waste service providers by: 1. developing and evaluating an add-in module for household budget surveys, which enables quantification of food-related domestic solid waste and its management 2. quantifying the contribution of informal collectors to waste management in Greater Accra and Kisumu County, including the challenges they face in expanding their services, thereby making the case for greater support for such businesses 3. generating preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of community-based education initiatives to promote waste separation and recycling in Ghana 4. generating evidence on the impact of Kenya's delegated management model on the safety of vended water. 5. generating preliminary evidence on a co-designed intervention to prevent contamination of vended water in Kenya.4. quantifying the type and quantity of unmanaged waste found in case study off-grid urban environments. 6. developing research capacity among postgraduate students at African universities participating in the project, whilst also forging longer term research collaboration between the African collaborators 7. re-evaluating approaches to mapping of slums and informal settlements in the light of the knowledge gained on waste collection and water vending. 8. Examining the trade-offs between water safety at point-of-consumption, affordability, and the entry of unmanaged waste into the environment for the different case study urban water vending systems in the project 9. subject to successful implementation of the first objective, promoting the use of a new international indicator that captures the quantity of unmanaged plastic waste associated with packaged water.
Aims and hypotheses to be tested A. To develop and implement an integrated multidimensional strategy using digital health to be widely used in the PHC setting for the management of patients with hypertension and diabetes, in order to test the hypothesis that is possible to design and implement a comprehensive strategy useful and acceptable by stakeholders, health professionals and patients, overcoming barriers and considering the cultural, gender and socio-economic diversity. B. To improve the care of patients with hypertension and diabetes in the PHC setting, through the implementation of this integrated multidimensional strategy using digital health, leading to better adherence to glycohemoglobin and blood pressure measurement and decreased glycohemoglobin and blood pressure levels. The underlying hypothesis is that such a comprehensive strategy with digital components is effective in improving control of hypertensive and diabetic patients.
Teleconnected SARgassum risks across the Atlantic: building capacity for TRansformational Adaptation in the Caribbean and West Africa (SARTRAC)UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Our aim is to identify new transformational developmental opportunities that build resilience equitably, for people affected by changing biomes/ecosystems in least developed countries. Specifically, we will identify the opportunities for transformational adaptation that can be generated through the management and re-use of the invasive Sargassum seaweed increasingly found across the Caribbean, Central America and West Africa. Since 2011, Caribbean, Central American and West African countries been experiencing massive Sargassum seaweed stranding events in Spring/Summer, whereby significant volumes of pelagic Sargassum seaweed have washed on to beaches and then slowly decay. Despite thousands of anecdotal media reports across the Caribbean and West Africa of the magnitude of impacts, there is little empirical evidence of the stranding events. One study suggests that in Mexico in 2015, around 9726m3 of seaweed accumulated per month per km of coast, requiring 4,400 workers to clear the seaweed from the beaches used by tourists. During the stranding and decay process negative economic and social impacts arise on: coastal access, tourism, recreation, health and marine and coastal livelihoods. There is also little scientific documentation of the broad suite of impacts or of effective adaptations, making it difficult for governments to effectively clarify the size of the impacts, to identify effective management strategies, or to find innovative adaptations to deliver equitable resilience. To address this research gap, we will accomplish our aim through four objectives (in priority order): O1. GOVERNANCE. Given the resource costs and capacity limits to address the problem in small islands and in developing countries, we will facilitate an integrated inter-state governance network to co-ordinate policy, administrative, technical and legal aspects of Sargassum responses within the Caribbean. We will work with stakeholders in West Africa to consider the potential for regional governance; identify and evaluate stakeholder interests, influence, and conflicts over Sargassum outcomes in the Caribbean and West Africa; understand the developmental concerns of impacted communities, and their perceived barriers to developing resilience to Sargassum events, especially within poor and marginalised communities; identify and co-develop evidence-based and locally appropriate adaptation options. O2. DISTRIBUTION. Monitor and map (local to regional) intra-Caribbean and West African Sargassum flows, impacts and adaptations, to identify the social and economic distribution of gains and losses from impacts and adaptations. Using Satellite imagery and drones develop an operational near real-time early warning system for the Caribbean DAC countries and Ghana. Develop impact pathways for different coastal archetypes, focussing on the most marginalised and poorest communities impacted O3. TRANSFORMATION. Evaluate the biotechnological and political economy potential for Sargassum re-use, to inform transformational adaptation pathways for Sargassum-receiving communities. Undertake seaweed collection, drying, preliminary analysis to identify opportunities for re-use in different products. Identify the demand for products from Sargassum, and identify success stories where opportunities have been developed from re-use. O4. DRIVERS. Evaluate large-scale drivers, oceanic transport, frequency and predictability of Sargassum events. Using the best available science, co-develop with stakeholders an effective means of communicating and disseminating the underlying science of seaweed sources, transport, accumulations, and future flows. Improve long term prediction of flows. These objectives will all be applied in the context of transformational adaptation, i.e. what can be achieved to generate equitable resilience outcomes for the poorest and marginalised communities affected by Sargassum.
VIET NAM: Slow Onset Hazard Interactions with Enhanced Drought and Flood Extremes in an At-Risk Mega-DeltaUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Our overall aim is to understand how agricultural resilience to hydrometeorological extremes can be enhanced through improved predictive capacity and aligned policy and governance, using the Vietnamese Mekong delta (VMD) as a representative exemplar delta. We will achieve this by developing and applying new modelling tools to explore key research questions (defined below) to explore how crop production and livelihoods are affected by the interplay between episodes of drought and flooding and ongoing environmental stress linked to upstream catchment management and climate change. We will also explore whether and how alternative water management and other adaptations (e.g., crop management) allow for more sustainable outcomes in the face of such environmental stresses. Our specific objectives are to: O1 Develop a stakeholder engagement strategy that will (i) identify the governance framework (including barriers to effective governance) and (ii) generate policy relevant scenarios for the Mekong delta's agricultural systems in relation to future (i) climate change; (ii) upstream catchment management (damming), and; (iii) local-scale adaptations to water and flood management practice. O2 Use climate and hydrological data to identify historical episodes of drought, quantify indices of drought severity and risk and identify the relationship between drought severity and crop production, the latter using empirical crop production data and satellite remote sensing. O3 Bring UK and Vietnamese expertise together to develop a new multi-scalar model for predicting water fluxes through the delta by combining high-resolution catchment hydrological models with delta-wide hydraulic models, the latter capable of simulating the impacts of environmental change on soil salinization. We will apply the models under future scenarios of environmental change (upstream damming; climate change with a focus on shifts in climate extremes; sea-level rise) to evaluate the impacts on flood risk, soil moisture, and surface water availability for irrigation during low flows, and salinization. O4 Incorporate the model outputs from O2 and O3 into our Systems Dynamics Model (SDM) framework to deliver a new integrated SDM that interlinks governance frameworks, upstream catchment (damming) and in-delta (dykes and sluices) water management infrastructure and climate-driven changes in water availability (floods, soil moisture, availability of surface water for irrigation) and salinization with crop production and agricultural livelihoods. O5 Apply the new SDM from O4 to explore the specific Research Questions as defined below. O6 Under the auspices of our Pathways to Impact, apply the SDM to simulate the policy-relevant scenarios established in O1 to help identify adaptation measures that could help ensure that the delta's inhabitants have a climate resilient future. The Key Research Questions to be addressed by O5 are as follows: 1) Is the increasing frequency and severity of floods more damaging to crop production and livelihoods than episodes of drought and saline intrusion? 2) What is the scale of the potential compounding aspects of such hazards and how is this affected by event sequencing? For example, is a flood followed by a drought more damaging than the combined impacts of the individual events? 3) How does the episodic occurrence of hydrometeorological extremes interact with progressive environmental change to affect overall system resilience? Do such interactions make it more or less likely for key 'tipping points' to be crossed? 4) What are the drivers for drought and flood management policies, and have these created conflicts between provinces and communities? What are the risks to livelihoods in communities? Are these addressed by drought and flood management? 5) What implications are there for the optimal management of hydraulic infrastructure in the delta, to help build greater resilience to hydrometeorological hazards?
This project brings together a highly qualified team from outstanding research organisations in the UK (University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre) and Viet Nam (Southern Institute of Water Resources Research, Hydro-meteorological Centre Southern Region) to address a crucial challenge, threatening millions of people in southern Viet Nam, namely compound flooding in the Mekong delta. Compound flooding is when the combination or successive occurrence of two or more hazard events or climate variables leads to an extreme event. It is a particularly important aspect of flooding in deltas that can greatly exacerbated the adverse consequences associate with flooding, and yet it remains under appreciated and poorly understood. The aim of this proposal is to map and characterise past and future flood risk, from coastal, fluvial, surface and, uniquely, compound (i.e. them in combination) sources across the Mekong delta in Viet Nam. Our hypothesis is that previous flood assessments have underestimated the source drivers and hence the likelihood of flooding and associated risk (particularly for the most damaging extreme events) as compound events have not previously been considered; which has serious consequences for disaster management and planning. Specific objectives (O) are to: O1 Assess the large-scale drivers of variability in storms and monsoon rainfall that impact Viet Nam and develop novel past and future time-slice meteorological datasets to drive coupled hydraulic catchment and hydrodynamic models of the Mekong delta region; O2 Use outputs form O1 to calculate past and future likelihoods (i.e. probabilities) of storm-induced storm-tides, and hence coastal flooding potential, across the Mekong delta; O3 Utilise outputs from O1 to compute past and future likelihoods of monsoon rainfall and storm-induced river flows, and hence the fluvial flooding potential, across the Mekong delta; O4 Integrate the results from O1, O2 and O3, with an indirect assessment of surface flood potential, to estimate the present and future likelihood of the occurrence of compound flood events in the Mekong delta and assess which specific types of weather patterns lead to compound events and which don't; O5 Quantify the exposure of people, property, infrastructure and agriculture across the Mekong delta to coastal, fluvial, surface and compound flooding; Collectively, delivering and integrating these objectives, in close partnership with our local governmental project partners in the Mekong Delta region, we will: O6 Consider management and planning options and provide guidance that will increase preparedness and resilience to future flood events.
The objectives of the proposal are three-fold; 1. to foster the growth of the GW community in India and create strong ties with them by creating a training network to build capacity for interdisciplinary research. This training network will allow PhD students and early career researchers from India to be trained by UK GW experts, taking this knowledge back to India to strengthen capability. The UK consortia has significant experience in developing technology and data analysis tools, whilst at the same time sharing these outputs across international collaborations. A particular highlight was the development of world-leading R&D under the advanced LIGO UK (ALUK) project. Here the Universities of Glasgow, Birmingham, Strathclyde and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory worked collaboratively to deliver the suspension hardware, sensors and electronics necesary to provide the quietest reference frames on earth; the aLIGO mirrors. These 40kg optics move no more than 1/1000th the diameter of a proton at 10Hz and were essential pieces of hardware to enable the first 2 direct detections of gravitational waves (GW150914 and GW151226). We propose a model where staff/postdoc/student exchanges to/from UK and Inda will be an effective method to share knowledge, experience and solve the technological challenges during the development of a new infrastructure in India. The vision is to equip India with the tools necessary to implement the most sensitive of the international gravitational wave detectors, and this represents a fantastic opportunity to further strength UK-India scientific relations. 2 to encourage entrepreneurial activity. The very nature of our field, where we are pushing the boundary of technology and analysis tools, and observing the most extreme astrophysical events in the universe has a numbers of applications which can directly benefit the development of entrepreneurial activity. Specific examples in the UK include data analysis tools for line rejection, analysis of retinal images, development of MEMS-based accelerometers, low power gas sesnors and stem cell differentiation through vibration. We will share best practice with our Indian colleagues by allowing them to engage with the academics and researchers who have been key in developing these spin-offs, to identify how this was performed, the funding routes, and opportunities for follow on funds included taking products to market. In preliminary discussion there already appears to be strong inkages with Indian companies in the areas of machine learning, High Performance Computing, big data, and precision lasers & optics, which we will fully capitalise on. We will engage with companies including Planys Technologies, Helia Photonics, Gas Sensing Solutions, Persistent Systems Limited, Honeywell, Safran, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, UUrmi, Nex Robotics via links through IUCAA and University of the West of Scotland. 3. implementation of a strong and vibrant outreach programme. The UK consortium also has a strong record of public engagement and enthusing the general public and school children about GW astronomy. Again this is an essential component to recruit the next generation of scientists. We propose to work closely with contacts in India to further develop outreach resources (suitable for both Indian/English speaking participants) and utilise the as a teaching tool to generate interest at early stages of schooling, ultimately with the aim of enhancing the provision and retention of STEM based students studying in high school and university. The programme allows the fabrication of outreach exhibits to take into Indian schools and science fairs, developing CPD for teachers by utilsiing cutting edge scientific themes such as Gravitational Waves.We also propose to engage within the Indian science outreach community including the India International Science Festival.
This research partnership focuses on the ways in which rapidly changing cultures of poultry meat consumption and agricultural systems in particular Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) shape antibiotic use/misuse in farming, with implications for tackling the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) health challenge. It aims to evaluate the relationships between changing urban diets incorporating increased meat consumption, transforming food systems and the use of antibiotics in agriculture. It will do so through a focus on the poultry sectors of Kenya and Malawi, in particular the urban contexts of Nairobi and Lilongwe. In terms of proposed policy interventions and impact, the aim of the partnership is to generate culturally and geographically sensitive approaches to antibiotic stewardship in the diverse poultry farming and supply chain contexts of Nairobi and Lilongwe in ways that support the implementation of Kenya's and Malawi's AMR National Action Plans. This will be achieved through strong partnership with the UK's Food Standards Agency, Codex Alimentarius (the UN's global food standards committee), Malawi's Ministry of Health and the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya. The specific objectives of the research partnership are: (i) To explore how changing urban cultures of food consumption in Kenya (focused on Nairobi) and Malawi (focused on Lilongwe) over the last 30 years have emerged through a growth in poultry meat production and associated transitions of farming systems; (ii) To map the poultry production and distribution systems of Nairobi and Lilongwe, capturing a diverse range of poultry farming systems, ranging from smallholders to large-scale commercial producers; (iii) To evaluate the ways in which the early phases of Kenya's and Malawi's National Action Plans for AMR (relating to legislation) are influencing antibiotic stewardship and antibiotic reduction targets in poultry farming, and to evaluate challenges associated with implementation, in particular relating to awareness of AMR and behaviour change regarding antibiotic usage in cultural context; (iv) To investigate the patterns and practices of antibiotic use across the diverse set of poultry farms in and around Nairobi and Lilongwe, establishing which antibiotics are used, under what circumstances and pressures, at what scale and intensity and by whom; (v) To co-produce educational materials, including art-based outputs, which are sensitive to the specific cultural and economic contexts of poultry farming and which can support AMR awareness-raising and initiatives of antibiotic stewardship in Nairobi and Lilongwe; (vi) To disseminate research on the contemporary cultures of food systems, poultry farming and their influence on antibiotic use to the stakeholders involved in developing and implementing the National Action Plans for AMR in Kenya and Malawi, as well as to the African Regional Committee of The Codex Alimentarius Commission, enabling future policy directions to respond effectively to the contexts and pressures of particular food systems.
Engaging Users for Quality Enhancement and Rights (EU QUERO):Strengthening the maternal and child healthcare system over the first 1000 days in BrazilUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overarching aim of EU QUERO ('I want' in Portuguese) is to increase the quality of and access to maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services available in the first 1000 days of life from conception in two contrasting states in Brazil, Maranhão and Goiás, through community engagement and social accountability. The main objective is to develop and conduct a feasibility of a complex social accountability intervention to monitor the quality of delivery of health programmes throughout four phases of the 1000 days: (i) pre-natal, (ii) birth, (iii) postpartum and newborn health, and (iv) child healthcare. It will be designed to be implemented at scale and to be sensitive to the health needs of adolescent mothers during both implementation and evaluation. The intervention is focused around two separate, complementary, activities: - The production and dissemination of facility scorecards indicating the quality of services available to women and children within the community. - Rights-based education, to empower women with the knowledge of the rights that they can demand from the health system. This type of intervention for maternal and child health is novel within Brazil (and Latin America as a whole) and therefore the feasibility of such a project needs to be ascertained in order to prepare for a pilot or full-scale RCT. A second objective is to strengthen the health system within the intervention areas to deliver greater quality of and access to maternal, newborn and child health care. The project seeks to benefit women within the intervention areas, engaging them with the health system, in order to demand and receive better quality services. Health workers in this area will also be more aware of the services that need most improvement and will develop action plans and strategies to improve services. The project will promote citizenship of vulnerable groups through the awareness raised from educational interventions about health as a right. This will aid in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals for Brazil through strengthening advocacy and accountability. EU QUERO also aims to develop communities of action and moments of integration/discussion within each intervention area, consisting of mothers, communities and community groups, health workers and health managers, as well as stakeholders and policymakers at the municipal and state level. The dialogue between these actors will continue to aid in the provision of good quality care to all mothers and children. The project will strengthen social accountability, one of the main principles of Brazilian public system of health (SUS). It does so by conducting innovative and interdisciplinary, inter-organisational research into community accountability and rights based education and the link with health systems strengthening for this population group. Limited research has indicated that there are large benefits for the quality of care following both the use of scorecards and rights based education, but the actual pathways through which this occurs is unknown. This project has an explicit work package which will engage with this process. The fourth objective is to estimate quality of care scorecards for different phases of the first 1000 days and map these services in order to identify hotspots of good or poor quality care. This will estimate the catchment area of each facility and information about the population in areas of Goiás and Maranhão in order to provide information for policymakers. The final aim is to develop the capacity of junior researchers in all three Universities to conduct world-leading interdisciplinary research into health systems, especially maternal and child health. We will develop a research network focused on health systems and rights between the Universities of Goias, Maranhão and Southampton, which is envisaged to expand to include other universities both in Brazil and worldwide.
The overall goal of this project is to investigate how the Zika virus infects and causes oncolysis of CNS tumor cells. This project is a collaboration between laboratories at the University of Southampton and the University of University of Sao Paulo and the overall objective will be achieved through meeting the following specific aims: (1) To understand the mechanism by which Zika proteins subvert the host-cell machinery of CNS tumour cells by identifying key protein interaction networks using cutting-edge proteomic and other molecular approaches (2) To understand why specific types of CNS tumor cells are more susceptible to Zika-driven oncolysis than others; to specifically understand the role of Wnt signalling in this process (3) To develop a sustainable collaboration between the UK and Brazilian project partners that builds on the recent discovery of Zika-driven oncolysis of CNS tumour cells and to help build the expertise and create new capabilities for research in this area in Brazil (4) To enable cross-training of a postdoctoral fellow and PhD students so that complementary expertise can be shared between the partner laboratories at the University of Southampton and the University of Sao Paulo
The main aim of this project is to develop, pilot and test the feasibility of a trial of a complex community-based intervention to reduce maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality in Uganda. The intervention will focus on provision of information and counselling to antenatal couples about birth planning and post-partum long-acting reversible contraception. This project will provide feasibility data to support a future proposal for a full-scale trial. The specific objectives of this project are: 1. To develop and pilot training packages for Village Health Teams (VHTs) and health workers in Uganda, on delivering counselling to antenatal couples about post-partum family planning, and encouraging couples to attend antenatal clinics together 2. To determine feasibility and acceptability for Village Health Teams in Uganda to provide information and counselling to couples on joint attendance at antenatal clinics, and post-partum family planning 3. To assess feasibility and acceptability of showing health education films on family planning in antenatal clinics in Uganda. 4. To evaluate feasibility of providing counselling to couples and of gaining their consent for post-partum family planning (PPFP), in antenatal clinics in Uganda 5. To assess feasibility of combining couples' counselling on family planning with counselling on birth planning in antenatal clinics in Uganda. 6. To evaluate feasibility and acceptability of offering antenatal clinics and counselling at weekends. 7. To estimate the proportion of couples who are able to reach agreement on a method of post-partum contraception after a single counselling session, and of those who do not, the proportion who return for a second counselling session. 8. To assess feasibility of recruiting pregnant women to a trial of the intervention, following them up and recording their place of delivery and use of post-partum contraception up to 12 months after delivery, in both urban and rural areas. 9. To assess the feasibility of village health teams using smartphones to collect and record data on participants, using a secure data transfer system. 10. To measure current levels of uptake of post-partum family planning, and estimate by how much this could be increased after couples' counselling is introduced (in order to estimate sample size for a future trial).
Bridging national strategy on sustainable development of water-energy-food systems to local scale needs in MalawiUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The strategic aim of this cluster is to bring together expertise and interest in addressing the scale challenge of policy implementation, and to develop the tools for understanding how to address this challenge in real-world contexts. We know that developing and sustaining networks of researchers, practitioners, and stakeholders, is key to co-developing approaches to solving difficult development problems that require diverse, interdisciplinary approaches. We therefore will bring together a wide range of expertise and disciplinary backgrounds as represented by our contributing GROW projects and partners. The consortium of expertise and interest will initially be developed for Malawi based on existing research and applications across the projects, and their associated partners. These partners will provide key input into the development of the cluster, via proposed workshops and the development of strategic documents. To reach this aim our specific objectives are as follows: 1. Identify and consult a broader range of interested and influential stakeholders in Malawi and the southern African region. We have an existing strong set of technical and political stakeholders already engaged via the GROW projects, but will expand this to encompass further key stakeholders at the district and national levels. The output will be a more complete picture of the multiple stakeholders operating at different levels to give rise to policy development and implementation. 2. Synthesize the research and understanding carried out under our contributing projects. There has been a tremendous amount of output generated from previous projects, which builds on a wealth of existing knowledge of various aspects of sustainable development in the water-energy-food realm. This research needs to be synthesized to understand knowledge gaps, the utility of produced datasets and tools for answering the proposed research questions. The outputs will synthesize information across sectors and scales. 3. Synthesizing the impact of our contributing projects. We will also scale-up the impacts of the research done to date through targeted communication, e.g. towards the National Planning Commission (NCP) as it develops Malawi's next long-term development. The outputs will be added value to the contributing projects as well as scoping potential for further policy-relevant research avenues. 4. Co-develop a conceptual framework for characterizing and understanding the scale gap. There are a range of existing frameworks for quantifying or characterizing coupled human-environment systems and their spatial footprint and variability, and for a range of applications. However, little has been done to apply these in order to identify the opportunities and barriers for grounded policy implementation. Co-development will ensure that we frame around current national implementation policies as well as forming the basis for broader applicability across sub-Saharan Africa. The output will be a conceptual framework. 5. Extend capacity in researchers and stakeholders in co-development of research. This will focus on developing interdisciplinary research ideas and approaches with the aim of promoting higher level strategic priorities in research and policy. Capacity building will support and draw from ongoing capacity development in the contributing projects, and the output will be more confident and mentored ECRs that are able to take up their role as the next research leaders in Malawi. By achieving these objectives, our consortium will be well-positioned to develop a full proposal to interdisciplinary calls that are informed by country needs. In particular, we will have developed a framework and plan for understanding the cross-scale biophysical and socio-economic interactions that can guide national or district policy outcomes, given the diversity of rural communities and their environments.
Maternal vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine as determinants of gestational diabetes, fetal growth and intergenerational programming of diabesityUK - Medical Research Council