Search Results for: "Queen Mary University of London"
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMIC. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMIC can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMIC. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMIC in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice.
The Good Governance Fund seeks to tackle corruption, improve the business environment, make governments more responsive to citizens, enhance media and civil society freedoms, and promote overall reform.
Child Health, Agriculture and Integrated Nutrition (CHAIN): a randomized trial to close the nutrient gap in rural ZimbabweUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
We have shown in a randomized trial in rural Zimbabwe that linear growth can be improved in the first 2 years of life with an intensive infant and young child feeding (IYCF) intervention, but one-quarter of children remained stunted. Our data show that nutrient intake remained insufficient to meet both macro- and micronutrient requirements for most children. Our overarching hypothesis in the current proposal is that the nutrient gap can be filled by a combined agriculture-infant feeding intervention. Our objectives and accompanying hypotheses in this proposal are: Objective 1. Deliver an integrated agriculture and infant feeding intervention ("IYCF-plus") to households in a randomized, community-based trial in rural Zimbabwe We hypothesize that more intensive behaviour-change communication by Village Health Workers, daily lipid-based nutrient supplements and provision of powdered fortificants (sugar beans, moringa and egg), together with a gender-sensitive agriculture intervention, will close nutrient gaps in young children better than the current standard of care IYCF intervention. Objective 2. Evaluate the impact of IYCF-plus on nutrient intake and growth in young children at risk of stunting We hypothesize that IYCF-plus will improve the intake of key nutrients (calories, protein, calcium, iron and choline) in 6-18 month old infants compared to the standard of care IYCF intervention (primary outcome). We further hypothesize that IYCF-plus will increase length-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height, lean mass and haemoglobin more than IYCF. Objective 3. Evaluate the impact of the IYCF-plus intervention on biological barriers to nutrient uptake and utilisation We hypothesize that the IYCF-plus intervention will increase microbiota maturity, ameliorate environmental enteric dysfunction, reduce systemic inflammation and improve innate immune function in children aged 18 months, compared to the standard of care IYCF intervention. Objective 4. Identify metabolic signatures of the IYCF-plus intervention in young children We hypothesize that the IYCF-plus intervention will increase the concentrations of essential amino acids and choline at 18 months, which are required for child growth, and lead to a unique metabolic signature compared to the standard of care IYCF intervention. To achieve these objectives, we have set the following milestones: 1. Write trial protocol and statistical analysis plan 2. Secure ethics approval and study sponsorship 3. Recruit and train research staff, Village Health Workers and Agricultural Extension Workers 4. Enrol 192 households, randomize to trial arms, and assess baseline characteristics. 5. Implement randomized infant feeding interventions (IYCF and IYCF-Plus) through home visits by government Village Health Workers with technical support from Zvitambo; assess intervention delivery fidelity through process reports. 6. Implement agricultural intervention to IYCF-Plus households through home visits by government agricultural extension workers with technical support from CIMMYT; assess intervention delivery fidelity through process reports. 7. Measure infant nutrient intake (primary outcome), anthropometry, haemoglobin and body composition (secondary outcomes) at 18 months of age. 8. Collect infant stool, urine and plasma at 18 months of age 9. Undertake social science, gender and economics assessments at 18 months using mixed methods. 10. Standardize laboratory methods in Zvitambo laboratory and finalize SOPs 11. Complete all laboratory work in Zimbabwe according to standard SOPs, with rigorous quality control 12. Ship samples to UK and undertake metabolomics and metagenomics work 13. Undertake 'future proofing' work by evaluating growth of maize under future climatic conditions 14. Unblind, clean, lock, integrate and analyse data 15. Interpret, publish and disseminate findings; engage with policymakers and programmers.
Building resilience and resources to overcome depression and anxiety in young people from urban neighbourhoods in Latin AmericaUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overarching aim is to identify which resilience factors help young people living in urban environments in Latin America prevent and recover from depression and anxiety. Identification of resilience factors is a crucial step in the development of new approaches at an individual, community and societal level to reduce the burden of common mental disorders. The aim will be addressed via specific objectives: 1. Develop appropriate methods for adolescents and young people to assess resilience factors that may be linked to preventing and recovering from depression and anxiety (WP1), 2. Determine whether resilience factors differ qualitatively or quantitatively between adolescents and young people with and without depression and anxiety (WP2), 3. Identify which resilience factors help adolescents and young people recover from depression and anxiety over a one-year period (WP3), 4. Explore existing approaches and resource-oriented interventions that are effective in preventing depression and anxiety in adolescents and young people or in supporting them to recover (WP4), 5. Build up research capacity in Latin America through a network of researchers (WP5), 6. Design and promote, in collaboration with local stakeholders and policy makers, strategies for building resilience to help adolescents and young people avoid and recover from depression and anxiety in urban neighbourhoods in Latin America (WP6). The core activities are two linked studies which will identify a) factors that are linked to prevention (WP2) by comparing adolescents and young people with and without depression in a cross-sectional study and b) factors linked to recovery from these disorders (WP3) by longitudinally following up those with depression and anxiety and comparing individuals who recover within a year to those who do not. We will include two age groups, individuals aged 15-16 years old and individuals aged 20-24 years old. The specific research questions to be addressed in these two studies are: For WP2: 1. Do resilience factors differ between young people with and without depression and anxiety? (primary research question) 2. Specifically, what are the differences in: a) social capital, b) meta-cognition, c) nature and quality of the social network, c) health behaviours and e) the type and number of context-specific resources? 3. Are the same differences apparent for a) the two age groups and b) gender? For WP3: 1. Which resilience factors are associated with recovery from depression and anxiety at one-year follow up in adolescents and young people from urbanised communities? (Primary research question) 2. What is the association between the different resilience factors used and their impact on recovery? 3. Do the same factors predict recovery for both age groups? 4. Do the resilience factors that predict recovery vary by gender? More generally, the wider aims of this programme of research are to: 1. Strengthen the research capacity in Latin America - particularly promoting junior researchers through expert advice and methodological support, 2. Strengthen the existing partnerships between the UK and Latin American institutions, 3. Form a wider network of research centres to expand the critical mass of researchers in this area, with the potential for future innovation and income generating activities, 4. Promote mutual knowledge and cultural exchange south-north and north-south, 5. Advance the scientific literature on preventing and treating adolescent depression and anxiety, 6. Identify factors which enable low-cost, sustainable and generic approaches to reduce the treatment gap currently experienced by those with common mental illnesses. 7. To give a voice to adolescents and young people who live in urban environments, are often exposed to multiple risk factors for poor mental health and are often absent from the research and mental health discourse.
To evaluate five new approaches to the treatment of malnutrition enteropathy in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a series of Phase 2 clinical trials. The endpoints will be physiological and pathological, to select potential therapies for taking forward into larger phase 3 trials. Specific objectives are: 1 To evaluate the potential impact of five novel interventions (colostrum, N-acetyl glucosamine, teduglutide, budesonide and elemental feeding) on non-invasive biomarkers of severity of malnutrition enteropathy in children with SAM and persistent diarrhoea; 2 To further evaluate one of the first four of these (colostrum, N-acetyl glucosamine, teduglutide, budesonide) against elemental feeding, for which we have early evidence of efficacy, in a trial including endoscopic biopsies and confocal laser endomicroscopy; 3 To confirm the safety, tolerability and acceptability of these interventions in this group of children. We anticipate the following outputs: i. Preliminary data on the likely efficaciousness of several novel interventions for children with SAM and enteropathy; ii. Impact of these interventions on biomarkers of multiple domains of enteropathy; iii. Safety and tolerability of the interventions in this group of children; iv. Acceptability of the different interventions to parents/carers and to staff; v. For one intervention, direct evaluation of mucosal healing.
Our study aims to develop a feasible, sustainable and adaptable scale-up package with the core component of the school-based education programme to reduce salt (School-EduSalt) in children and families. This will lead to a wide-scale implementation of the education programme in multiple settings at regional levels and eventually across the whole country in China, which will ultimately prevent the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases in China. There are seven specific objectives: 1) To refine and adapt the School-EduSalt programme into multiple settings in China. 2) To develop a scale-up package to implement the refined education programme following WHO's Conceptual Framework for Scaling Up. 3) To test the feasibility and adaptability of the scale-up package in multiple settings in pilot sites. 4) To implement and evaluate the scale-up package in 3 regions, and to study the facilitators and barriers to implementation, as well as the approaches to overcome the barriers. 5) To evaluate whether the refined education programme can increase the knowledge and skills to lower salt intake in children and their families through knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) indicators. 6) To evaluate whether the refined education programme can lower salt intake in children and their families by measuring 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (i.e. the gold standard method). 7) To achieve sustained policy and programme by integrating the scale-up package into the existing school health education system.
Our overarching aim is to determine which underlying pathogenic pathways are impacted and not impacted by a bundle of enhanced infection prophylaxis in adults and children with advanced HIV, to inform whether all components of the bundle are required when implemented at scale in a similar patient population. We will achieve this by focusing on three key mechanistic pathways that may underlie early mortality in advanced HIV infection and could plausibly be impacted by the enhanced infection package, as follows: Aim 1: Do subclinical bacterial infections drive mortality in advanced HIV? Aim 2: Does enteropathy drive mortality in advanced HIV? Aim 3: Do inflammation and T-cell activation drive mortality in advanced HIV? Our objectives are therefore: 1. To determine whether azithromycin and albendazole contribute to the mortality reduction seen in the REALITY trial, by evaluating whether they perturb the key pathogenic pathways associated with early mortality either through a direct antimicrobial and/or anti-inflammatory effect and/or other pathway. 2. To evaluate the residual drivers of mortality in advanced HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, to inform future approaches to improve survival even further than that achieved so far in the REALITY trial. 3. To refine the bundle of care that should be implemented at scale in sub-Saharan Africa, based on the mechanistic findings from this study. 4. To strengthen basic science capacity at our partner sites in sub-Saharan Africa through specific activities to develop key individuals through this project. 5. To communicate in a timely manner these findings to basic science researchers, clinicians and policymakers to maximize impact from our research. In order to achieve these objectives, we have set the following milestones: 1. Recruit and train UK study staff in laboratory methodology to be used. 2. Identify key laboratory scientists at each site to undertake this work, including one individual to undertake an MSc/PhD and one individual to undertake a mentored research project through the PERFECT program in Zimbabwe. 3. Optimize laboratory techniques in the UK and produce SOPs which will include quality assurance and quality control for each assay performed. 4. Secure regulatory and ethical permissions in each country to use the stored samples as proposed. 5. Secure study sponsorship in the UK. 6. Transfer the necessary laboratory techniques for these assays to each lab in Africa; train, mentor and support scientists at each site. 7. Undertake standardization of laboratory methods and data across sites. 8. Undertake ELISA assays and flow cytometry laboratory work in Africa. 9. Provide supportive supervision for two laboratory scientists to ensure completion of MSc/PhD and/or mentored research project in PERFECT. 10. Ship samples to the UK and undertake Taqman Array Card analysis, PCR and reporter cell line work. 11. Analyze data in conjunction with site teams and statisticians at the MRC Clinical Trials Unit. 12. Present study results at two international meetings, including one in Africa. 13. Publish 3 open access papers presenting results of this study. 14. Use results to refine the bundle of care taken to scale for mortality reduction, through dialogue with clinicians and policymakers at local, national and international level. 15. Disseminate our study findings and their implications through multimedia sources, and ensure impact through implementation of our 'Pathways to Impact plan'. 16. Use results to inform the design of a new trial to further reduce mortality in advanced HIV infection.
Building the barricades: Three interdisciplinary studies on Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the context of armed violence in BrazilUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
This multi-disciplinary project seeks to reveal social and cultural insights into Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use (MNS) Disorders in Brazilian urban communities made fragile by multiple stress factors (socio-economic exclusion, high levels of violence, limited access to cultural networks and institutions, etc). Three interconnected studies will explore possible resolutions that aim to bring mutual learning between scholars, policy makers, community activists, local residents and substance users. The project develops an innovative inter-disciplinary analytical and methodological framework that builds on the strengths of the research team to bridge geographical, social and disciplinary borders. It combines the analytical approach of the social sciences with investigative traditions in the humanities to explore integrated ways to produce, share and disseminate learning between multiple agents and audiences. Innovative coproduction and simultaneous generation of impact and knowledge exchange is central to the research aims and design. The research is rooted empirically in territorially specific community-based research in Maré, the largest favela complex in Rio de Janeiro - a city in which over 22% of the population (more than 6 million people) live in 'slums'. Objectives: CONCEPTUAL: To investigate the context of MNS disorders and their impacts on fragile urban communities subject to multiple stress-factors as a means of developing municipal and national strategies that inform international debates about how to work towards UN SDG 3; to develop statistically relevant and artistically excellent research that explores how the Brazilian state's armed response to the illicit drug trade (part of the 'war on drugs') affects incidence and severity of, prevention of and resilience against MNS disorders in peripheral urban communities known as favelas (and similar territories across Latin America); to understand how social, cultural and territorial factors impact on the vulnerability and resilience of the mental health of residents, healthcare workers and those living with addiction to psychoactive substances on the streets in the vicinity of the Complex of Maré (estimated population: 140,000). EMPIRICAL: To examine how insights into the narrative of people living with MNS disorders in marginalised communities can address stigma and discrimination; how researchers can increase awareness of the socio-economic and cultural contexts which affect - and are affected by - the ways illicit drugs are openly traded and used; how new learning can impact on harm reduction strategies and open up research trajectories that inform and improve public policy in LMICs; what factors concerning the social organisation and cultural capital of Rio de Janeiro's favelas offer opportunities to build community-based responses to MNS disorders; how these communities can be more effectively connected to and inform service provision addressing context specific issues of disability, quality of life, wellbeing, economic status and levels of social participation. METHODOLOGICAL: To develop a quantitative and qualitative methodological framework to examine MNS disorders in fragile urban communities affected by violence that combines participatory appraisal, testimonies, service mapping, narrative and photographic studies as an effective way of understanding the lived realities in Brazilian favelas, treating participants as active agents; to share methodological tools across disciplinary and geographical borders between Brazil and UK; to build capacity among civil society organizations and academic partners. POLICY INTERVENTIONS: To engage policy makers to increase knowledge about MNS disorders in health, public security, education and social care workers; to promote collaborations between policy makers, academics, health workers and civil society organisations to devise evidence-based strategies to maximize local resources in building resistance.
A prospective multicenter birth cohort study of iron adaptive homeostasis, growth and development in three Peruvian regionsUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Our objectives are 1. To evaluate the effects of infant exposure to ecological/environmental factors, including nutrition and water quality which together can influence the gut microbiome development and alter the mechanisms of adaptive iron homeostasis in infants. 2. To assess the contribution of biological factors, such as the ecological succession of intestinal microbiota with emphasis on those that have siderophore genes for iron absorption competition in the intestinal gut on IDA incidence in breastfed infants during the first year of life. 3. To identify social factors such as dietary patterns and food insecurity associated with ID or IDA in breastfed infants during the first year of life. 4. To analyse political factors, success and failure of past policies and lasting sustainable policies in addressing food insecurity and IDA in different areas of Peru. 5. To develop a framework able to explain the complex interplay and interdependence of eco-bio-social-political factors determining an iron deficiency in anaemia in Peru.
This project will answer questions about the role, value, and potential of digital platforms in craft sectors of the Creative Economy in China and the UK: - What digital platforms are used in China and the UK, and what are their features? - How are these digital platforms used in China and the UK? What is similar? What is different, and why? - What value is generated through the use of digital platforms? - What are the similarities and differences in the use of digital platforms in the craft sector in China and the UK compared to other Creative Economy sectors? - How is IP secured and exploited in through digital platforms? How is this different in China and the UK? - How are insights gained through digital platforms? - What are the similarities and differences between rural and urban uses of digital platforms? How are these different between China and the UK? - How might craft sectors in China and the UK better leverage digital platforms to sustain and grow their activities in Creative Economy? The results of this research will be online resources to support craft stakeholders in China and the UK to make better use of digital platforms to grow and sustain their craft activities.
Building trans-disciplinary partnerships for exploring the impact of population displacement on nutrition interventions in rural ZimbabweUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
We have shown in previous research in rural Zimbabwe that linear growth can be improved in the first 2 years of life with an intensive infant and young child feeding (IYCF) intervention, but that one quarter of children remained stunted. Data from this trial (SHINE) show that nutrient intake remained insufficient to meet both macro- and micro-nutrient requirements for most children. Follow-on research (CHAIN) will explore the hypothesis that the nutrient gap can be filled by a combined agriculture-infant feeding intervention. However, as this GCRF call highlights, the long-term success of interventions depends on better understanding the cultural and historical contexts within which they take place. In order to better understand the potential for long-term and sustainable improvement to household nutrition in contexts such as those encountered in rural Zimbabwe it is vital that we take account of population displacement, changing familial structures and their intersection with gender-related dynamics shaping household food security and agricultural capacity. We will only achieve this by more effectively integrating humanities and social science perspectives into an already existing North-South/South-South partnership. Our objectives in this proposal are as follows: Objective 1: To identify inter- and trans-disciplinary partners In order to achieve this objective we will undertake a comprehensive literature review exploring the intersection between population displacement, household food security and agricultural production capacity and conduct a social network survey of relevant non-governmental organisations (NGOs) based in Zimbabwe, neighbouring countries and from the UK-based Zimbabwean diaspora. Objective 2: Building equitable and sustainable partnerships We will work with the London International Development Centre-Migration Leadership Team (LIDC-MLT) and the African Research Universities Alliance (ARUA) to establish principles for equitable and sustainable working across our proposed inter- and trans-disciplinary partnership. Objective 3: Building capacity and capability through participatory research Working with Village Health Workers who are familiar with the rural Zimbabwean households we intend to engage with, we will design a pilot participatory research project to explore issues around near and far population displacement, household food security and agricultural production capacity and their potential to impact the effectiveness of the 'IYCF-plus' intervention being tested in our CHAIN trial. Objective 4: Develop future intervention strategies Our core objective is to establish an enduring architecture for inter- and trans-disciplinary research partnership ensuring that the gains made during this project are not only sustained, but form the basis for future progress towards achieving WHA targets for improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition by 2025.
How is the current crisis reshaping Brazil's health system? Strengthening health workforce and provision of services in São Paulo and MaranhãoUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
This research aims to explore the impact of the current economic crisis and associated austerity measures on the health system and workforce in Brazil. Specific attention will be given to (a) understanding public sector physicians reactions, (b) their repercussions to the provision of services in developed and underdeveloped settings, and (c) fostering the debate on suitable policy responses to the crisis. The study has four specific objectives: First, to collate, analyse and synthesise the available data on the changes happening in Brazil in connection to the economic crisis in health financing, in the development of the private sector, and in the distribution of the national health workforce. We will do so by conducting multivariate analysis of secondary data already acquired by our Brazilian partners on national health spending, and national medical demography data. The second objective is to generate hypotheses on the impact of crisis and associated austerity measures on the health workforce, and their current or planned reactions and coping strategies. For this objective, we will draw from the existing literature to conduct qualitative interviews with health sector key informants in the two states, interrogating them about changes happening in the public and private health systems, and about physicians' and nurses' reactions. Testing quantitatively such hypotheses will be the third objective for this study. We will organise two surveys in São Paulo and Maranhão, where quantitative and qualitative information will be collected from representative samples of approximately 1,200 physicians from the two states, looking specifically at changes in earnings, workload, engagement with private services, intentions to leave the public sector. Association and causality will be established between personal characteristics, effects of specific policy measures, and changes taking place in the public and private sector. The last objective will be to feed the study results into the current debates on suitable policy response to the crisis in Brazil's health sector. For this purpose, we will organise and facilitate two policy dialogue workshops with health sector stakeholders in São Paulo and Maranhão, where we will present the study findings as well as the international evidence on economic crises, health systems and associated policy measures from other countries. It is expected that achieving the above four objectives will contribute to the ongoing academic and policy debates on how economic crises affect health systems, as well feed directly into the national debate on the government's policy response to the crisis in Brazil.
Determine relevant stakeholders in Malaysia to engage in a project aiming to reduce salt levels in food consumed outside of the home Investigate stakeholder views towards salt levels in the out of home sector and barriers to salt reduction in the sector which we will prepare for publication for knowledge exchange Develop a strategy to reduce salt levels in the out of home sector and gain commitment from policy makers to implement the strategy Engage with government departments and the food industry to encourage investment and ensure sustainability of our strategy Conduct capacity development activities including training workshops to train relevant stakeholders in methods to reduce salt
Step-down affordable treatment for chronic hepatitis B 12250ection in Africa and India Acronym - STEP-HEPUK - Medical Research Council