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Now showing projects 1 - 20 of 43

NIHR Global Health Research Units and Groups: research call 1

UK - Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC)

1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-10-NIHR_GHRUG1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: 01-04-2017
Budget: £130,820,088

Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness Programme

UK - Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO)

To increase opportunities for smallholder farmers by demonstrating the commercial viability of businesses with significant smallholder supply chains and by attracting investment into these businesses

Project Identifier: GB-1-205118
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: 14-06-2017
Total Budget: £62,974,995

Policy Research Fund

UK - Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO)

To make DFIDs Research agenda more responsive through the production of short term policy research that will address the needs of policy makers by providing them with primary evidence that can subsequently be used for policy analysis in such areas as Health, Education, Conflict, Cash Transfers, Aid Transparency, Tax Policy, Social Protection, Energy, Payment by Results, Economics and Innovation. Short term policy driver research studies will be commissioned in the following sectors and regions. A series of case studies will be developed for Higher Education covering Burma, Ghana, Pakistan and Sierra Leone. The information available on Electricity Access and Electricity Insecurity will be reviewed for India. A study will be undertaken on assessing the Cuban Model of Medical Education in sub-Saharan Africa. A review will be undertaken looking at Social Protection and Tax in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and Activity based Learning will be reviewed in Tamil Nadu, India.

Project Identifier: GB-1-204584
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: 29-07-2014
Total Budget: £7,505,493

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

MISSION To be an international resource and centre of excellence for research and capacity building for the epidemiological analysis and modelling of infectious diseases. The Centre has built a world-leading group of epidemiological researchers to undertake applied collaborative work with national and international agencies to support policy planning and response operations against infectious disease threats. STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES To maintain and strengthen: (a) an international centre for translating new epidemiological analysis and modelling research into practical policy guidance for controlling infectious diseases; (b) a core capacity to respond to emerging threats and time-critical global health research priorities with real-time analysis and predictive modelling; (c) collaborative relationships with national and international public health agencies and facilitate skills transfer and capacity building, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs); (d) an integrated, multidisciplinary research programme to identify the ecological, biological and social determinants of pathogen emergence and spread (e) responsiveness to new priorities for applied intervention research, including assessment of health and economic impact, contributing to vaccine development and evaluation, and addressing the threat posed by antimicrobial resistance. APPROACH Building on 9 years' experience, the Centre core will consist of a shared technical resource (in project management, GIS, database analysis, high-performance computing and professional programming) and a public health stakeholder liaison team. The shared technical resource comprises the Centre scientific manager, a high performance computing technician and two professional software developers. The latter posts are dedicated to improving programming skills and operationalizing the methodological software tools developed by Centre researchers. The liaison team will consist of a research fellow dedicated to our partnership with WHO and an External Relationships and Communications Manager to facilitate capacity-building and research collaborations with external partners (notably, in LMICs) and enhance our external communications. The Centre core will be complemented by investment in capacity building in priority research areas via an expanded PhD programme, a new Imperial-MRC research fellow scheme, five new academic posts and a responsive pump-priming research fund. This structure will allow greater flexibility in responding to new priorities (whether outbreaks or urgent policy questions) and for building and sustaining relationships with a wider range of international partners. RESEARCH THEMES For the next 5 years, Centre research will focus on a set of 5 cross-cutting themes: - Outbreak Analysis and Modelling - Global Health Analytics - Vaccines - Antimicrobial Resistance - Methods and Tools This research will occur in the context of its application to 10 priority disease areas: - Zoonoses and Animal Diseases - HIV, STIs and Hepatitis - Malaria - Tuberculosis - Influenza - Arboviruses - Neglected Tropical Diseases - Enteric Infections - Bacterial Pathogens - Fungal Pathogens The Centre's history of frequent internal as well as external collaboration in both methodological and applied research makes it exceptionally well-placed to deliver this broad, cross-cutting research agenda. Examples of work drawing on expertise from multiple PI groups from the last 5 years include analyses of the MERS-CoV and Ebola epidemics and modelling to inform business planning for the Global Fund. This collaborative culture and the overall coherence of the Centre's research is maintained by regular cross-Centre research meetings, workshops, training programmes and awaydays. Maintaining a high degree of interaction is essential for the Centre to deliver on its mission and objectives,given the highly interdisciplinary research required.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-MR_R015600_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £2,946,635

Human infection challenge vaccine (HIC-vac) network

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Our mission is to support, develop and advocate the use of Human Infection Challenge (HIC) to improve understanding about infections and the diseases they cause, leading to better vaccines and treatments. The objectives are split into network and catalysis to enable effective delivery, though there are clear overlaps. NETWORK 1. Develop an interactive network of investigators, providing mutual support. 2. Develop regulatory and ethical frameworks to support human challenge studies in UK and Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). 3. Support applications to science funders by members of the network. 4. Advocate for the use of HIC with the public in the UK and LMIC. 5. Advocate for the use of HIC studies to replace, enable and de-risk phase III vaccine studies. CATALYST 1. Develop HIC studies through pump-priming projects that enable, enhance and extend HIC, providing preliminary data for new funding applications. 2. Support existing HIC studies, for example through a bio/databank network to maximise benefit of diverse HIC studies. 3. Develop the technical expertise for HIC studies in LMIC settings.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-MR_R005982_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £1,782,944

Optimising antibiotic use along surgical pathways: addressing antimicrobial resistance and improving clinical outcomes.

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The overarching research question is: How can antibiotic use be optimised along the entire surgical pathway through context specific, (at country and organisational level) behavioural and organisational interventions aimed at providers and patients? The question will be answered through the following objectives, and the project delivered through five work-packages (WPs) (see Figure 2 technical appendix). 1. Investigating the macro level economic, regulatory and policy drivers and constraints which result in prioritisation, competition or integration of Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship at each point in the care pathway at the organisational level. (WP1) 2. Characterising cultural norms, established hierarchies, team roles and methods of communication around Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Control which operate within specific surgical/healthcare environments (WP 1&2). 3. An assessment of patient-provider co-production models which may be supported by the outer and inner contexts investigated through objectives 1 and 2. (WP1, 3, 5) 4. Development of theory based innovative solutions (WP3). 5. Evaluating the operational and cost effectiveness of existing and new interventions using a systems thinking modelling approach (WP 2, 3 & 4).

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-ES_P008313_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £1,589,722

ROAD2H: Resource Optimisation, Argumentation, Decision Support and Knowledge Transfer to Create Value via Learning Health Systems

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The project's objectives are: O1. To provide a transparent integration of argumentation and resource optimization allowing to instantiate and interpret the results of standard mathematical optimization methods O2. To provide methods for resolving conflicts amongst guidelines, variants thereof, patterns drawn from the analysis of clinical and billing data, and resource optimization considerations O3. To integrate routine data collection and evolving knowledge into the a DSS, towards best practice within a LHS O4. To provide tractable and transparent DSS prototype tools to support localised health interventions and efficiency and quality improvements O5. To demonstrate the usefulness of the ROAD2H methodology and tools in LMICs and evaluate pathways to take up

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_P029558_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £1,515,899

WISER-Water Infrastructure for Schistosomiasis-Endemic Regions

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The research objectives are to: 1. Determine the effectiveness of water treatment processes at removing or inactivating cercariae in water samples collected from endemic regions of Ethiopia and Tanzania, capturing a range of water quality conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, turbidity, colour). The treatment processes will be chlorination, sand filtration and ultraviolet disinfection, the latter by low and medium pressure mercury arc discharge lamps, light-emitting diodes, and solar disinfection. The processes will be tested individually and in combinations. 2. Develop and validate a rapid and cheap biosensor for detecting cercariae in water samples using synthetic biology. Apply this to measuring cercariae in water samples collected from the study regions and in the water treatment trials described in the first objective to aid in the assessment of cercariae occurrence in water bodies and removal/inactivation effectiveness. 3. Using the treatment data gathered by addressing the first two objectives and considering the relevant non-technical, i.e. social and economic factors (e.g. costs, maintenance requirements, local education/training needs, gender and class equity issues), develop design guidelines and recommendations for appropriate, sustainable/affordable, and equitable water infrastructure for communities in schistosomiasis-endemic regions of Africa. Further goals of this collaborationare to: 1. Disseminate the resulting recommendations to as wide an audience as possible, including as many relevant stakeholders and end users in the two partner ODA countries (Ethiopia and Tanzania) and beyond, including regional ODA countries that are schistosomiasis-endemic. 2. Grow the existing research capacity at Addis Ababa University through bespoke training in research and transferable skills, and develop curriculum for new modules relating to water and wastewater engineering. 3. Communicate the research findings in UK schools and to the public via the Imperial Festival and Fringe events, as outreach activities to promote the importance of STEM subjects in addressing global challenges.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_P028519_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £1,487,272

Resilient Electricity Networks for a productive Grid Architecture (RENGA)

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The project will investigate the development of an electrical power system for rural electrification in developing countries that will start from the aggregation by interconnection of small autonomous electricity supply systems (AESS) of different scales (e.g. solar home systems or mini-grids). The specific objectives of the project will be: - To draft a roadmap for the cost-effective development of an electrical system starting from the aggregation of AESS with smart controls as an alternative to the old paradigm of building resiliency through redundancy and preventive planning. - To propose a new concept of interconnection network technology that will enable AESS to exchange energy between them and with an electrical utility network. This will require choosing the specifications of the network, identifying what converter interfaces it would require and how they would be operated to ensure short-term stability. - To assess the benefits of the interconnection technology for different scales of application (e.g. few households, village level, etc) and derive specifications for it (e.g. tentative costs, ratings, etc). - To formulate an operational optimization model suitable for AESS and interconnected AESS that includes detailed operational characteristics of the smart enabling technologies and takes into account post-disturbance transient effects and stability constraints. - To develop models of smart enabling technologies (e.g. interface converters, special protection schemes, etc) for the quantification of their impact in security of supply in planning studies. - To investigate a suitable protection system for the proposed interconnection network technology to ensure high safety at a low cost. - To develop models of small-scale renewable generation yield and demand tailored for planning studies in rural electrification considering taking into account specific geographical characteristics and evolution over time.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_R030235_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £984,148

Low cost through knee prostheses. TaKeuP

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The overall aim of this proposal is to address the societal needs of the large number of through-knee amputees in low and middle income countries (LMICs) through the design, development and translation of novel frugal technologies. Our headline aims are, in order of priority: 1. to develop a low-cost through-knee prosthesis specifically aimed at amputees in LMICs (initially Cambodia) the initial concept for which has been developed in previous phase of work; 2. to develop a pathway to support the translation of future frugal technology projects into developing countries. This pathway, as to be demonstrated by the low-cost through-knee prosthesis development, will provide a route to fast-track the development of frugal technology into a field where it is desperately needed; 3. to develop and populate a prosthetics and orthotics project pipeline to promote the rapid translation of appropriate frugal technology concepts to the LMIC market where they are in need; and 4. to harness the frugal technologies pipeline in a reverse innovation process through the network of prosthesis manufacturers with whom the applicants have a strong working relationship. We will achieve these aims through our targeted objectives. 1. LOW COST THROUGH-KNEE PROSTHESIS 1.1 To research the performance of existing knee prosthesis solutions for through-knee amputations used in the field as a bench mark for evaluation. 1.2 To design and prototype a through-knee prosthesis which meets specific user requirements such as: being low-cost; providing through-knee amputees with greater functionality such as a locking knee mechanism; being physiologically representative to minimise the social impact of their disability and provide a more natural walking gait; providing variable resistance to produce a more natural walking gait; enabling Prosthetists to easily align and adjust to suit the patient; and being suitable for local manufacture in Cambodia. 1.3 To evaluate the user requirements and analyse the design performance in comparison. 1.4 To evaluate component performance within laboratory conditions. 1.5 To manufacture prostheses for user trials. 1.6 To assess the prosthesis performance in desired use scenarios. 1.7 To produce a package of deliverables for scale up of manufacture. 1.8 To produce a package of deliverables for prospective distribution routes. 2. FRUGAL TECHNOLOGY PATHWAY 2.1 To incorporate a network of collaborators (engineers, clinicians, Prosthetists and manufacturers) for the development and support of the frugal technology pathway concept. 2.2 Development of an evaluation methodology for future concepts. 2.3 To organise a collective of manufacturers in LMICs for future developments. 2.4 To coordinate a distribution route through which low-cost prosthetics can be made accessible to those with the greatest need. 3. PROSTHETICS AND ORTHOTICS PIPELINE 3.1 To formalise procedures for a project pipeline through which new concepts may be proposed, evaluated and developed utilising the Frugal Technology Pathway.) 3.2 To evolve the design of existing knee prostheses to allow for squatting and cross-legged sitting. 3.3 To develop a knee prosthesis for children. 4. REVERSE INNOVATION 4.1 To create a set of formal interactions with our network of advanced prosthesis manufacturers (including members of the Exceed Research Network such as Blatchfords) to focus and drive a mechanism of Reverse Innovation, leveraging the technologies developed in this project. 4.2 To evaluate the potential benefits of the outcomes of the Frugal Technology Pathway to the NHS through a set of formal interactions with leaders in Prosthetics and Physiotherapy in the UK, including those at Charing Cross Hospital and DMRC Headley Court, who have advised on the initial phase of the through-knee project.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-EP_R014248_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £888,571

FENGBO-WIND - Farming the ENvironment into the Grid: Big data in Offshore Wind

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

1) To increase the energy yield of offshore wind farms through very large scale simulation and optimization tailored to specific site conditions and weather, and to demonstrate this on existing and prospective sites in the East China Sea. 2) To reduce system integrity risks on offshore wind turbines under extreme events through the combined simulation of atmospheric dynamics, their action on the farm and the response of the blades, and to demonstrate it in the simulation of a typhoon event. 3) To enable the quantitative prediction of the long-term interactions between offshore wind farms and the local (atmospheric and marine) environment through highly-resolved simulations across all relevant scales, and to use it investigate the potential effects of farms in Chinese coastal areas. 4) To support the sustainable development of offshore wind in the Jiangsu province of China through application of state-of-the-art physics-based simulations and big-data analytic tools to the design of a new generation of offshore wind farms. 5) To build confidence, through the careful analysis of numerical results against data from operational wind farms, in the predictive capability of massive-scale simulation across scales. 6) To investigate new physics-driven strategies for wind farm optimization for energy production or system resilience, and data-driven strategies for operation and control, and to demonstrate their viability in a realistic context.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-EP_R007470_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £812,414

Lung function trajectories from birth to school age in African children, and their early life determinants

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Overall objectives Our overall aim is to investigate lung function trajectories in African children from birth to 8 years of age, and to identify early-life risk factors associated with low lung function trajectory. Specific objectives (1) To use latent profile modelling to assign children to one of a set of lung function latent trajectories, with their number and size not pre-specified (2) To investigate the association between LRTIs, childhood wheezing illness and lung function in African children from birth through childhood (3) To identify early-life predictors of lung function trajectories (4) To identify genetic associates of low lung function trajectory (4) To build African clinician scientist skills and capacity in child health, bioinformatics and genomics.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-MR_S002359_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £769,918

Impact of Rapid Expansion of the Estratégia de Saúde da Familia in Rio de Janeiro: Mixed Methods Evaluation

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Examine whether rapid expansion of primary healthcare (PHC) (the Estrategia Saude da Familia - ESF) in the city of Rio de Janeiro has improved health outcomes; Examine the implementation process for ESF expansion, and the barriers and facilitators to programme success through observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus groups with programme administrators, team managers, health professionals, and patients; Explore how ESF is performing against key domains of PHC (access, continuity, co-ordination, comprehensiveness, quality, equity, and efficiency) from both a system and individual patient perspective; Examine whether key domains of the ESF are driving improvements in health outcomes; Explore whether some population groups are benefiting more from ESF than others and why they are doing so; Explore whether there are synergistic health benefits from dual coverage of ESF and a national conditional cash transfer (Bolsa Familia) programme; Employ robust methodologies including propensity score matching, and multi-level regression analysis to maximise casual inference and granular understanding of the data from the study; Create a unique linked longitudinal database covering health care contacts (primary and secondary care), welfare benefit eligibility, and mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro for on-going use by health care administrators and researchers; Utilise dynamic micro-simulation models to explore the effectiveness (both in terms of health outcomes and cost) of further expansion of ESF in Rio de Janeiro and in selected other Brazilian cities with low ESF coverage at present e.g. Sao Paulo and Salvador; Utilise micro-simulation to model potential policy-scenarios reflecting the economic and political challenges in maintaining ESF funding, and explore the impact on health of reduced funding and ESF coverage; Work as an integrated team of researchers (both qualitative and quantitative), policy-makers, and programme implementers to ensure relevance of research questions, high potential impact from the research, and timely feedback of results to decision-makers; Organise dissemination events for city, state and national level policy-makers in Brazil with the aim of promoting our research findings and informing the development of PHC in the country and internationally; Engage with project partners - the Ministry of Health in Rio de Janeiro and the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) - to maximise impact of the work alongside traditional routes such as academic publications and conferences;

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-MR_P014593_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £479,807

SEARCH: SouthEast Asian Research Collaborative in Hepatitis

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Specific objectives: (i) To extend the work of the MRC Stratified Medicine Consortium in Hepatitis C (STOPHCV) and the STOPHCV-1 trial to low resource settings (ii) To build a new collaborative hepatitis C (HCV) treatment research programme with the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and the Vietnam Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme (MOP). (iii) Scale up HCV clinical trials capacity within HTD, Ho Chi Minh City (iv) Develop capacity within the Vietnam MOP for next-generation sequencing of HCV virus, (partnership with the STOPHCV consortium) (v) Establish pharmacokinetic assays for sofosbuvir and ravidasvir to support trials within the SE Asian region (partnership with pharmacology laboratories at Mahidol University, Thailand) and investigate drug-drug interactions between SOF/RVD drugs used and commonly used HIV treatments (most importantly efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir) (vi) To develop tools to measure costs of care and impact of treatment (vii) Develop detail of a larger research programme to provide the evidence needed for scaling up HCV treatment within Vietnam and the region. (viii) To create a new partnership with the drugs for neglected disease initiative (DNDi) through provision of SOF/RVD, complementing their work in Malaysia and Thailand.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--GCRF-MR_P025064_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £445,818

'SPIICA' - the Sao Paulo-Imperial College Immune Correlates in Arbovirus Infection Network

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Our objectives during this programme of work, in order, are as follows: 1. To build a successful, bi-national network of researchers and clinicians, generating the most substantial ever grouping of researchers targeting understanding of the immune correlates of outcome after arbovirus exposure, with particular emphasis on Chikungunya (CHIKV) - 'SPIICA' - the Sao Paulo-Imperial College Immune Correlates in Arbovirus Infection Network. In so doing, we seek to build sustainable links between leading immunologists in the two countries, based on close interaction, joints workshops and staff exchange visits. 2. To build capacity through a consortium of collaboration in cross-disciplinary areas to understand the complexity of CHIKV immunology and immunopathology. 3. To establish a broader understanding of CHIKV as a chronic disease. 4. To publish high-impact joint publications on CHIKV susceptibility and immunity. 5. To put in place a detailed, rationale for the immune correlates of differential outcomes after CHIKV exposure, from acute disease and convalescence to chronic disease with polyarthraligia or death. 6. To recruit a substantial CHIKV human clinical diseases cohort across 6 centres, stratified into acute infection, chronic infection with evidence of polyarthralgia, recovered/convalescent and matched, uninfected controls. 7. To understand the correlates of disease in the above groups at the level of viral seroreactivity, in terms of antigen specificity and antibody isotype, as well as generation of exemplar human, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for detailed characterization and definition of neutralizing epitopes. 8. To use multi-parameter flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to define the immune phenotypic correlates of disease outcome. 9. To assess the immune phenotypic correlates of disease outcome at the level of serum cytokines and transcriptomic biosignature, analysed by RNAseq. 10. To define the immune correlates of disease at the level of T cell antigen and epitope recognition, including elucidation of responses associated with protection relative to those associated with pathogenesis. 11. To define the metabolic perturbations induced in host cells by CHIKV infection. 12. To supplement biopharma applications in terms of diagnostic and treatment improvements. 13. To improve the clinical protocols and basic care for chronic CHIKV infection. 14. To improve the Brazilian System of Health (SUS) to offer specialized, personalised care for the populations suffering from this infection

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-MR_S019553_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £388,467

Discovery and characterization of swine host factors required to support swine influenza virus replication.

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

We aim to set the pathway towards generation of gene edited pigs that are resistant to infection with swine influenza viruses by 1. identifying candidate pig genes that influenza virus replies upon, and 2. defining precise mutations that prevent the virus from utilizing the host factor. To achieve this goal we will Develop reagents and methods to perform a CRISPR based screen to identify host genes in pig cells that are required to support replication of swine influenza virus. Characterize the identified host factors to understand the point in the swine influenza virus replication cycle for which they are co-opted by virus and ascertain any interactions they have with swine influenza virus proteins. Develop reagents and methods to undertake a high throughput library based codon mutagenesis screen to define amino acids in the identified host factors that are essential for their ability to support swine influenza virus replication. Design a gene edited variant of the identified host factors that will no longer support swine influenza virus replication but is minimally affected for the normal host function of the protein.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-BB_R013071_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £378,891

[Malaysia] Understanding and managing the risk of water related diseases under hydrometeorological extremes

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

This proposal aims to increase local resilience to current tropical disease outbreaks by bringing together world-leading scientists on hydrometeorological extremes with experts on artificial intelligence and community health. We aim to advance the use of artificial intelligence in improving the understanding of the risk of outbreaks, addressing major gaps between the different areas of study. For this, we will leverage recent advances hydrometeorological predictions, machine learning methods, and low-cost sensor development. In particular, the proposal sets out to achieve the following objectives: 1. To assess data availability and identify environmental and social parameters with strong predictive potential for disease incidences from existing local, regional, and global datasets Using the state of Negeri Sembilan as a case study, we aim to assemble a curated database of disease occurrence and potential hydrometeorological and social-demographic driving factors. For this, 8 water contact areas have already been identified by the local Communicable Disease Control and Prevention Unit. Historical records and questionnaire-based risk assessments are available from our project partners. Environmental data are freely accessible from the Malaysian Department of Irrigation and Drainage, while the Department of Meteorology charges a small fee. Water quality monitoring data will be provided by local District Offices. This database will form the basis for the data mining approaches developed in objective 2. 2. To develop a predictive model using advanced neural network methods and improve prediction accuracy disease incidences Using our expertise in a broad range of data-based analysis techniques and machine learning, which are part of the wider portfolio of artificial intelligence approaches, we aim to develop a predictive model that can be integrated in operational disease forecasting. We have identified neural network algorithms as a promising method, given the large body of research on its use in non-linear pattern identification and prediction. However, we aim to compare this method with more recent developments such as Radial Basis Function Neural Networks and modifications. 3. To design a community-based hydrometeorological data monitoring for strengthening future predictions of disease incidences Objectives (1) and (2) will enable us to identify those hydrometeorological and other driving factors that have the highest predictive power in our computational model. Based on these insights, we aim to leverage our expertise in community-based hydrometeorological monitoring and low-cost sensing technologies to explore whether grassroots monitoring can contribute to improved outbreak forecasting. For instance, local hydrological features in the landscape such as lakes and ponds may be critical components that may not be covered by conventional monitoring networks. Monitoring them using a community-based approach may be a promising approach to refining large scale forecasts, increasing their relevance at a community level, and fostering local awareness and buy-in.

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-NE_S003053_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £320,792

Evaluating the impact of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) programme in Brazil

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

To evaluate whether the emergency provision of nearly 18,000 doctors under the programa Mais Médicos (PMM) has affected health outcomes; including hospitalisations from ambulatory-care sensitive conditions and mortality among children and adults from amenable causes; To understand whether PMM impacts differed across population sub-groups, programmatic factors, and by municipal-level characteristics, including explicitly testing impacts on health inequalities; To understand what factors influenced allocation of PMM doctors to municipalities and to what extent was allocation consistent with PMM criteria of need; To determine whether the allocation of PMM doctors to non-priority municipalities influenced programme impacts on health outcomes; To understand facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of PMM, including broader health system constraints, and how these were addressed by national implementers, local health managers and PMM doctors; To determine whether different characteristics of PMM doctors, particularly the differences between Brazilian and Cuban doctors, have influenced programme impacts; To work collaboratively and integrate qualitative and quantitative approaches throughout the project to maximise the cross-learning, steer research approaches, contextualise findings, and deliver the outputs that are appropriate for the Brazilian setting and valuable to policy-makers; To generate longitudinal aggregate datasets from existing data sources covering all municipalities to facilitate robust analyses, and preserve these datasets for future research; To build capacity for Brazilian and UK based early career researchers in robust data analysis, impact evaluations, international collaborations, and influencing health policy; To engage with institutions and civil society such as the Ministry of Health, the council for municipal health secretaries, national health conference, the Brazilian Public Health association (ABRASCO), and the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), to maximise the impact of the work alongside traditional dissemination routes such as academic publications and conferences; To draw generalizable lessons from the PMM for other contexts on factors affecting successful implementation, wider health system effects, and expected impact on health; To influence policy relating to the primary healthcare and human resources for health (HRH) both in Brazil and internationally;

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-MR_R022887_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £252,564

From Design and Construction to Discovery: Machine Learning Algorithms for Particle Physics Triggering and Tracking with GPUs and FPGAs in Malaysia

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

The Objectives of the proposed project are as follows: * to improve the big data analytics and high-performance computing skills of the Malaysian participants through collaborative efforts with the UK on the COMET experiment * to provide training and practical experience in machine learning, GPU programming, high-bandwidth data processing, FPGA programming, high-performance batch computing, parallel programming, and modern software development in an international collaborative environment to the Malaysian participants * to equip Malaysian participants with the skills to increase their involvement in COMET both during the three year project and after, as well as boosting their ability to contribute to the data-driven aspects of today's economy * to expose Malaysian participants to the research environments at both Imperial College London and the J-PARC international accelerator laboratory in Japan, both through attachments and short-term visits as well as through remote collaboration * to include the University of Malaya's Data-Intensive Computing Centre as one of several high-performance computing sites for COMET that contribute to official data-processing for the COMET Experiment in addition to those in France, China, the UK, Japan, and Germany * to improve COMET's software and analysis capabilities by implementing parallel processing capabilities, such that multiple computing cores on a CPU can be made use of. This is important as COMET presents one of the world's most demanding data analysis challenges, as well as requiring the processing of huge amounts of simulated data * to finalize COMET's Phase-I tracking algorithm design and the track-trigger design and implement them in the experiment effectively and correctly on GPUs and FPGAs; these will run on simulated data and real data from the experiment * to participate in COMET's first data taking runs, scheduled to take place in Year 2 of the project * to create an feasible design of the tracking algorithm for COMET Phase-II building on the techniques used for the Phase-I detector to design a prototype of the Phase-II algorithm design, to be tested on simulated data * to advance COMET's capability to achieve its target of a world-leading sensitivity measurement of charged lepton flavour violation (CLFV)

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-ST_R006741_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £219,354

Immunological tools for a seroprevalence and immune status map of Burkholderia pseudomallei and thailandensis in Vietnam

UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

This Newton Fund project seeks to strengthen research links between immunology and microbiology researchers in Hanoi and London. The research question encompasses steps to examine the potential consequences of human exposure to either Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) or B. thailandensis (Bt). We here define a sample area encompassing five hospitals in four regions of Northeast, Northwest, North Central and South Central Vietnam, a patient catchment area of some 33,621km2 and around 8.4 million individuals. Blood samples will be collected from 200 healthy donors at each hospital. We thus plan to build an initial dataset of 1000 individuals, for assessment Bp and Bt exposure in terms of seroprevalence, relating clinical sampling sites to analysis of Bp/Bt load in soil samples from these regions. Furthermore, since diabetes is the strongest risk factor for development of clinically overt disease in exposed individuals, we will also assess the prevalence of diabetes. We will: (a) assess Bp and Bt bacterial soil load at almost 1000 sites distributed from North to South Vietnam, (b) recruit 200 donors attending health-checks at each of 5 hospitals across 4 regions of Northeast, Northwest, North Central and South Central Vietnam, (c) conduct serological analysis to assess Bp and Bt seroprevalence in relation to geographical region, gender, age, occupation and drinking water supply (d) use the sera to obtain a related dataset on prevalence of diabetes (the strongest risk factor for clinical disease in Bp exposed people) (e) in a more limited subset of donors, we will develop T cell immunology approaches for analysis of protective host immunity; this will utilise MHCII/peptide tetramers for phenotyping of T cell responses correlated with protection in exposed individuals (f) use collaborative studies, training and joint, annual, workshops to build close links between researchers at the respective institutes, reinforcing immunological expertise in Hanoi (g) publish papers on our collaborative findings

Project Identifier: GB-GOV-13-FUND--Newton-MR_R02622X_1
Activity Status: Implementation
Start Date: N/A
Budget: £175,335

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