Search Results for: "University of York"
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMIC. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMIC can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMIC. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMIC in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice.
To improve outcomes for people affected by humanitarian crises by identifying, nurturing and sharing more effective and scalable solutions.
To produce research analysis and best practice guidance that will help to inform global policy on how development programming and policy can have the greatest impact on stability and security overseas.
The Darwin Initiative is a UK government grants scheme that helps to protect biodiversity and the natural environment through locally based projects worldwide. The initiative funds projects that help countries rich in biodiversity but poor in financial resources to meet their objectives under one or more of the biodiversity conventions. The objective is to to address threats to biodiversity such as: - habitat loss or degradation - climate change - invasive species - over-exploitation - pollution and eutrophication
GCRF:Thanzi la Onse (Health of All): Frameworks and analysis to ensure value for money health care - developing theory, changing practiceUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The core objective of the Thanzi la Onse ('Health of All') programme is to improve population health and reduce health inequities through enhancing the efficiency and equity of health care provision through data-informed priorisation of resource allocation in low-income settings. The programme will initially build upon deep-rooted relationships and past research activities in Malawi; which, by some measures, is the world's poorest nation. The central goal is for Malawi to become the leading model for the application of government-led, analytically-informed health care decision-making on resource allocation in the African continent. The depth and scale of activities in Malawi will also have spill-over benefits and inform approaches in other countries. Regional structures will be supported, including partnership with the East Central and Southern Africa (ECSA) Health Community. These will help facilitate sharing of research experiences and lessons on how sustainable improvement in policy-making from Thanzi la Onse are achieved; the building of capability and advocating for the use of such approaches in other countries. In Uganda, Thanzi la Onse will support a local research team that will be actively engaged in supporting the use of health economic and modelling analyses for policy-making. We aim to support research capacity and policy recognition for the programme's core disciplinary approaches in Uganda within 4 years. In order to achieve its core objective, Thanzi la Onse will realise five specific short-term aims, to be achieved within the programme's lifespan: I. Build an ambitious 'whole system and all-disease model' as well as comprehensive analytical methods and implementation strategies to inform the Malawian Government's health care policy decisions. II. Enhance researcher capability in health economics, disease-modelling, and policy engagement in the Sub-Sahara African region through close collaboration between UK and African researchers based in Malawi and Uganda. III. Facilitate the strengthening of partnerships between local researchers and Government analysts and decision-makers in Malawi and Uganda to encourage greater collaboration and consultation on future health care policy decisions. IV. Better inform the UK international development academic and policy-making community about the resource allocation and policy challenges affecting sub-Saharan Africa with the establishment of committed partnerships between UK and African health economics, modelling and political science specialists. V. Engage with international stakeholders and policymakers to inform this community about the challenges constraining effective resource allocation in the region, and to champion the reflection of and ways to overcome these challenges in future international health care policy guidelines. The long-term objective of Thanzi la Onse and its legacy initiatives is to adapt the resource allocation methods and strategies to other nations in sub-Saharan Africa, in order to address the resource allocation needs specific to the region's governments and their citizens. We expect the policy and social impact of this work to occur at a range of geographic levels (local, national, regional, and international) and over a broad timeframe (short-term within the programme's lifespan, and longer-term beyond Thanzi la Onse's initial phase). Through extensive Impact Realization activities, we aim for the programme to be recognised as a leading international example of collaborative partnership and mutual learning by the full range of global health funder and implementer organizations (e.g. bilateral donors, WHO, BMGF, universities, NGOs). The Programme's multi-faceted proposals for capability building will enhance the number of researchers working in the key research disciplines needed to support resource allocation decisions in health, and develop skillsets in those associated with policy in health in low-income settings.
There are currently no programmes in place to enhance the capacity of local researchers, researchers in think tanks informing international investors, and UK researchers to support the design sustainable and resilient development corridors in East Africa. Our proposal aims to address this gap. Through timely engagement with decision makers and developing relevant capacity within research institutions and researchers in eastern Africa, China and the UK, we will generate decision-relevant evidence and feed it into key decision making processes in order to improve the sustainable development outcomes of investments in development corridors in East Africa and elsewhere in the long term. The main objectives are as follows: a) To enhance the relevance and quality of the 'development corridor' research being done in-country in eastern Africa and by UK-researchers especially on ecosystem services, scenario analysis and livelihoods analysis. b) To link the research in eastern Africa to the work of Chinese research institutions advising on development spending by China in Africa, especially in key Chinese ministry-associated think tanks. c) To provide co-designed training and capacity building inputs from across all partners particularly focusing on the developing country researchers in eastern Africa, UK and China. d) To ensure that existing and new corridor research reaches government, private sector, Chinese investors/lending agencies, and other decision-makers involved with development corridor planning and implementation. e) To effectively disseminate the research work within and outside the region - including both the existing and ongoing research - but also the new work undertaken by this programme.
Genomics-led improvement of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in mustard rape for economic and environmental sustainabilityUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
We address Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) objectives to (a) build a research and innovation partnership to support economic development and welfare in India and (b) develop in-country research and innovation capacity for long-term sustainable growth. As the largest oil crop in India, mustard rape has the greatest potential to increase vegetable oil production overall, so is the logical focus crop. It fits well in crop rotations systems and has well-established supply chains from breeders to consumers. Losses from biotic and abiotic stresses can be total. Small-scale farmers have limited resources to invest in crop protection, making genetic improvement an attractive approach. In addition to genomics and bioinformatics, we aim to mobilise UK expertise in the target traits to help address the scientific and crop improvement problems. An important aim is to provide training to support transfer of technology and expertise to enable implementation in India. Major features will be staff exchanges (particularly staff from India learning technology in the UK by undertaking research under the supervision of the UK Co-Investigators and their research groups), collaboration and free exchange of data. We aim to apply to mustard rape cutting-edge genomic approaches first developed for oilseed rape in order to underpin improved productivity, sustainability and profitability. The programme exploits emerging draft genome sequences, adapting and applying to mustard rape (B. juncea) the latest genomic and bioinformatics approaches developed in the UK for oilseed rape (B. napus). For the first time, these are applied by a broad consortium of Indian experts, supported by the corresponding UK experts, to challenges facing commercial production. Specifically, we aim to: 1. Establish an updated Associative Transcriptomics platform for B. juncea. 2. Establish a genome re-sequenced B. juncea radiation panel platform. 3. Establish CRISPR-Cas9 technology in B. juncea. 4. Establish transcriptome re-sequenced resources for B. juncea introgression lines. 5. Establish a molecular cytogenetic toolkit to support trait introgression into B. juncea. 6. Establish a profile resource for key stress-relevant metabolites in B. juncea. 7. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of white rust tolerance. 8. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of stem rot tolerance. 9. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of black spot tolerance. 10. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of extreme virus resistance. 11. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of aphid and butterfly tolerance. 12. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of Brassica-broomrape interaction. 13. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of temperature and drought tolerance. 14. Understand the genetic and molecular basis of salinity tolerance. 15. Ensure effective data management to support pre-breeding. 16. Ensure effective knowledge transfer. 17. Ensure effective project management. The research will be conducted via a set of work packages (WPs), each addressing a specific aim. WPs 1 to 6 result in the establishment of technology platforms for mustard rape, WPs 7 to 14 aim to undertake focused research and draw upon the technology platforms to identify the genetic and molecular bases of stress trait tolerance, WPs 15 and 16 aim to empower the development and adoption of improved cultivars based on the research and WP17 addresses project management. One of our focus traits, drought tolerance, has also been identified as a key trait for improvement in pulse crops and will be addressed in the Newton-Bhabha PORI project "Drought Resilience in Indian Pulse Crops", with which we have a common partner (University of Essex). We have coordinated the development of our proposals, adjusting their scope to make both affordable within the financial constraints of the call. Ifboth proposals are funded we will coordinate activities where appropriate.
Redressing Gendered Health Inequalities of Displaced Women and Girls in contexts of Protracted Crisis in Central and South America (ReGHID)UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overarching objective of ReGHID is to improve the delivery of SRH and SRHR of reproductive age women (aged 25-49) and adolescent girls (15-24) in situations of protracted displacement, to engender both evidence-based advocacy and concrete policy proposals for improving coverage of SRH services and developing responsive and inclusive durable solutions for wellbeing and development of all. ReGHID will: - Develop new quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence on the impact of displacement on the SRH needs of women and adolescent girls in Central America and Venezuela (WPs 1-3) - Co-produce research with non-governmental and civil society organisations working with displaced women and adolescent girls to uncover the lived experiences of their right to health in relation to SRH, and the strategies of displaced women and adolescent girls deploy to meet those needs, including from public and non-state providers in places of transit and settlement (WP2) - Co-produce a holistic understanding of the pressure that the SRH needs of displaced women and adolescents place on local health systems in places of settlement, including an analysis of the resources and capacity required to meet SRH needs and rights (WP3, WP4) - Analyse whether and how health systems respond to, compromise or deny SRH needs and rights for migrant women and girls in places of settlement (WP4) - Co-develop with health service researchers, local and regional stakeholders a 'Comprehensive Healthcare Model', proposing concrete changes at local (public) health system level to deliver gender-responsive and rights-based services (WP4) - Co-develop and implement with key local stakeholders (including associations of women and adolescent girls, NGOs, and the OIM), strategies for guiding planning for the effective delivery of displaced women and adolescent girls' SRHR through 'the AGAPE guide': 1) Assessment of female displaced migrant SRH needs and SRHR, 2) Guidance in identifying and accessing services in destinations, 3) Assistance in processes of movement and sites of transit and settlement, 4) Protection from wrongs and harms that impact on SRH, 5) Enabling self-reliance and movement to durable solution (WP5, WP6) Research fieldwork and impact activities will be conducted in key places of settlement of women and girls from Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador in Tapachula, Mexico; Venezuelan migrants in Manaus and Roraima, Brazil, and Norte de Santander, Colombia; and places of return after protracted displacement in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula in Honduras and San Salvador in El Salvador. The project will be delivered by an interdisciplinary and international consortium that unites leading academics from health economics, political science, demography and social statistics, international development, human rights, gender studies, anthropology, migration and public health. Participants are drawn from leading research institutions in Central and South America region (Honduras, El Salvador, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico), the Universities of Southampton and York. It benefits from the participation of key regional intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations including the Council of Ministries of Health for Central America (COMISCA), the regional office of the International Organisation for Migrations (IOM), Medicos Sin Frontera (MSF, Mexico), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and FLACSO/Costa Rica. Outreach and impact will be achieved through a set of activities in partnerships with NGOs and IOM embedded in their routine work and working directly with displaced women and adolescent girls throughout the work packages.
Building on our prior research into innovative sensor technologies, microbiology and international development, this project aims to engineer appropriate solutions for testing water quality in poor and marginalised communities. The solutions will be developed in collaboration with communities using a process that enables co-design of sensor technologies to detect relevant contaminants. Our co-design approach ensures that technologies are developed with the specificity, selectivity, and constraints on time, frequency of use and accessibility that reflect community needs, skills and environment. At the same time, our participatory method will incorporate institutional design sensitive to the social, institutional and economic setting in which the technologies will be distributed, controlled and used. While we focus here on water quality in the South Pacific, the integrated participatory process applies across ODA recipient countries and a range of technologies. We will thus also demonstrate a replicable process for technology innovation that ensures science and engineering work effectively for the poor and marginalised. Objective 1: Comprehensive list of technology requirements and user needs established through microbiological assessment of community water sources and facilitated community discussions Objective 2: Demonstrate low-cost microbiological activity sensor(s) for testing microbial water quality and evaluate in-lab against community challenges, needs and requirements. Objective 3: Develop molecular sensor arrays for highly specific detection of faecal contamination in water and evaluate in-lab against community challenges, needs and requirements. Objective 4: Informed by economic assessment, engineer water monitoring prototypes, including development of ancillary components, for use in-community by community members and NGOs. Objective 5: Validate water sensor technology alongside co-designed community institutions through in-community trials Objective 6: Evaluate generic and replicable process for integrated participatory technology development through engagement with poor communities in the Solomon Islands. Objective 7: Train and develop PDRAs in highly interdisciplinary, ODA compliant research that will have impact over the next decade and beyond.
Aim & objectives Our overall aim is to prevent respiratory and other smoking-related illnesses in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) by reducing children's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). In this proposal, our objectives are to assess: 1. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a school-based Smoke-Free Intervention (SFI) in reducing children's: (a) exposure to second-hand smoke (primary outcome), (b) frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms and improving their lung functions, (c) number of contacts with healthcare and improving their quality of life, (d) smoking uptake, (e) school absenteeism and improving their school performance. In addition, we would like to identify: 2. the mechanisms and contextual factors that are likely to influence the effectiveness of the SFI, 3. the likely obstacles to and opportunities for implementing and scaling-up the SFI and how best to work with schools and policy makers to overcome the obstacles and maximise the opportunities.
Development of a human challenge model of Leishmania major infection as a tool for assessing vaccines against leishmaniasisUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The main objective of the proposal is to develop a new human challenge model of cutaneous leishmaniasis, initiated by sand fly bite. To achieve this objective, we have four main aims: 1. Conduct focus group discussions to inform the development of a human challenge model of leishmaniasis (clinical study 1) 2. Conduct optimisation studies to develop a sand fly biting protocol using healthy volunteers and uninfected sand flies (clinical study 2) 3. Development of a clinical parasite bank of L. major, for future use in human challenge studies, beginning with isolation and characterisation of fresh clinical isolates of Leishmania major from patients in Israel (Clinical study 3), and including validation of transmission through sand flies and infectivity to mice 4. Conduct initial human challenge infection studies in healthy volunteers, to establish parameters for safety and utility as a model to test vaccine efficacy (clinical study 4).
Integrating ecological and cultural histories to inform sustainable and equitable futures for the Colombian páramosUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overarching aim of the project is to integrate an understanding of socio-cultural histories and ecosystem dynamics in response to social, political, economic and environmental pressures to inform the development of a sustainable and equitable future for the páramos. The research will be of benefit to to the communities that depend directly on the páramos for their livelihoods and to wider Colombian society. In order to achieve this aim, we will take a historical perspective, reaching back as far as pre-Hispanic times where records allow to provide historical context, but concentrating primarily on the last 200 years. We will address the following objectives: 1. Determine how changes in páramo habitat availability have impacted ecosystem dynamics (focusing on biodiversity of páramo birds and plants), and project how páramo habitat may change in the future under climate and other drivers of land-use changes. 2. Understand how cultural values and practices have contributed to, and reflected, changes in human-nature relationships and governance of the páramos over time, and consider the implications for future governance of the páramos. 3. Identify present and future governance options for the páramos, that have the potential to deliver improved monetary benefits to the community while maintaining broader ecosystem service provision and enhancing social equity.
Objectives 1. To create a UK:Brazil Joint Centre Partnership in Leishmaniasis (JCPiL) 2. To support the pursuit of basic research on leishmaniasis that is clinically directed and informed by an understanding of the economic and societal challenges that affect translation and practice. This objective will be divided into five work-packages: WP1: To exploit deep phenotyping of clinical samples from leishmaniasis patients as a route to host-directed therapy. WP2: To understand the macrophage inflammasome response to Leishmania in the context of its potential for host-directed therapy. WP3: To explore the genome diversity of Leishmania in Brazil and identify potential virulence factors pertaining to human disease. WP4: To test the hypothesis that DNA replication stress signalling drives genome diversity in Leishmania. WP5: To investigate mechanisms and drivers of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in Leishmania. 3. To co-ordinate, consolidate and extend current collaborative projects between researchers in Brazil and the UK. 4. To contribute to the education and training of the next generation of researchers to tackle leishmaniasis and other LMIC diseases of poverty, such as Chagas Disease. Success of the JCPiL will be measured by: 1. Increased knowledge on Leishmania and leishmaniasis in Brazil 2. Increased number of co-authored publications between Brazilian and UK scientists 3. Increased capacity for and delivery of training and exchange of students between Brazil and UK 4. Evidence of sustainability, through successful acquisition of additional funding to support the Centre. 5. Expansion of the leishmaniasis-focussed programme of work in the JCPiL to other Neglected Infectious Diseases
The overall aim of this proposal is to develop improved lines of amaranth to facilitate the cultivation and consumption of this African leafy vegetable by smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Growing and consuming amaranth would increase the nutritional content of smallholder household diets, provide agro-ecological benefits, improve food security by being a climate-tolerant crop, and provide opportunities for income generation. One key aim of this proposal is to facilitate faster improvement by developing the biological knowledge and tools for molecular analysis, and using the genetic diversity within the ARC amaranth germplasm collection. Specific objectives are to: 1. Capture and utilise genetic diversity in amaranth to generate lines with robust increased leaf volume (yield) under the variable growing conditions typical of smallholder farmers We will determine the variation in yield and nutritional content in the ARC amaranth germplasm collection to identify lines with particularly beneficial traits and highlight excellent parents for future crossing and breeding strategies. We will generate an F2 mapping population from parents differing in yield and nutritional value and use the mapping population diversity to select higher yielding lines. The segregating F2 population will be used in participatory plant breeding both on the research station and on smallholder farms to select lines with increased leaf volume and good sensory qualities when grown under low input, highly variable conditions. Smallholders in regions of South Africa with varying rainfall will be involved to determine whether the same lines perform well in different locations. 2. Determine the genetic basis of secondary metabolite accumulation (hence nutritional value) in amaranth and link specific metabolites to important agronomic traits (pest resistance and yield) In addition to increasing genetic variation for yield, the mapping population will be used to understand the genetic regulation of nutrient and anti-nutrient accumulation, and highlight any correlations between nutritional value, yield and pest resistance. The F2 mapping population will be genotyped and phenotyped for metabolite profile (nutritional value), yield and pest resistance to determine genomic regions and markers linked to metabolites of nutritional importance and understand potential trade-offs between micronutrients, yield and pest resistance. This will drive further breeding and development of improved amaranth lines (and ultimately stable distinct varieties) and help prevent development of material with enhanced nutritional benefit but poor performance in the field. We will train South African plant breeders in the use of molecular breeding strategies (including GBS and marker development) and develop markers that can be used in breeding for nutritional content and to ensure quality of seed production going forwards. 3. Determine the water use efficiency of amaranth and the impact of water limitation on nutritional content. There is a lack of detailed information on the drought tolerance and water use efficiency of the diverse locally adapted amaranth accessions, hence we will investigate this in our improved yield lines, the mapping population parents and accessions from the germplasm collection with highly diverse nutritional profiles. We will also determine the nutrient water use efficiency of these lines. This is a measure of how much the nutrient profile is impacted by water availability. For example, a line could have a high nutrient content under well-watered conditions, but a low nutrient content if water is limiting. Understanding the molecular basis of nutritional content, how it correlates with pest resistance and yield, and how it is impacted by water availability will be essential for improvement of yield whilst ensuring nutritional value and key traits for amaranth's value in diversified low input smallholder farming systems are maintained.
The project has the overarching objective of supporting the development of sustainable monitoring and modelling systems for air pollution that will help LMIC countries in West Africa to develop and implement their Air Quality Management Plans. This will be achieved by working in 3 West African countries (Ghana, Togo and Cote d'Ivoire) with project partner research institutions, Universities and policy makers in these countries to :- i. overcoming the lack of air pollution monitoring data in West African cities through co-designed and co-produced highly fault-tolerant and affordable systems for air pollution measurement that can be made widely available through full open-source dissemination; ii. developing methods by which these monitored data can be integrated with modelled data that describe city-wide emission and pollutant concentration fields to both validate model outputs and ensure that monitoring sites are optimally located across the city and; iii. developing institutional infrastructures that can provide technical, financial and political support to this integrated monitoring and modelling approach to air quality management, bespoke to the particular cities and regions of West Africa. Our specific objectives are to:- - provide access to the resources and requirements needed to create, build, and deploy new air quality instruments - provide information on the analysis and how to publicly disseminate monitoring data that is collected. - to integrate the monitoring data with the LEAP-IBC modelling output of pollutant emissions and concentrations to allow both model validation and improved design of monitoring locations across the cities - to estimate the burden of ambient and indoor exposure to PM2.5 on people, and by gender, in the different cities, by quantifying the impacts on premature mortality and other health outcomes such as pre-term birth. - to identify suitable interventions that would reduce emissions, pollutant concentrations and air pollution impacts in these cities - to identify mechanisms to develop sustainable integrated modelling and monitoring systems, through identification of institutional infrastructures that can capacity build and finance the required technical and policy expertise to sustain and expand this integrated approach to support governance in air quality management across West Africa. Achieving these objectives will contribute to providing these West African countries with the appropriate resources, equipment and models which the countries themselves will have the capability of maintaining. This package of 'tools' will form a vital component of air quality management planning and monitoring and as such will contribute to improving the health of the people in these countries and can be scaled up to other countries of the African continent.
Aim To develop a theoretical and practical understanding of the relationship between reparations, responsibility and victimhood in transitional societies. Objectives 1. To examine a range of five cross-cutting themes on the relationship between reparations, responsibility and victimhood in Colombia, Guatemala, Nepal, Northern Ireland, Peru and Uganda, including Eligibility and Complex Victimhood; Reparations, Acknowledgement and Truth Recovery; Victim Ownership, Mobilisation and Participation; Responsibility, Accountability and the State/Non-State Axis; and Finance, Feasibility and Development. 2. To develop a research instrument structured around the themes identified above and to conduct semi-structured interviews with 20 key stakeholders in each jurisdiction including relevant government officials, civil society organisations, victim groups, ex-combatants, legal and political figures. 3. To conduct a review of the scholarly and policy literature across all of the disciplines noted in the Case for Support that touch upon the five project themes. 4. To partake in scholarly dissemination of the research findings through: a fully theorised monograph; five articles in peer-reviewed international journals or book chapters in scholarly collections (lead authorship rotating for career development including the PDRF); presentations at national and international conferences; and the development of an on-line database on reparation laws, programmes and case law linked to project website (see below). 5. To implement a strategy designed to maximise the impact of the project, both in the local jurisdictions being studied and internationally. Specifically this will entail: a) Writing and disseminating two bespoke policy outputs per jurisdiction translated into local languages based on themes identified by engagement with local stake-holders. b) Hosting two international facing workshops in New York and Geneva. These sites have been selected as the main base of operations for key reparations international organisations (i.e. the International Centre for Transitional Justice and UN in New York and in Geneva the International Organisation for Migration, Office High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva Call and International Committee of the Red Cross). Three international facing outputs will be produced from these workshops, translated into the five principal languages of the UN. These will include: detailed guidelines on how to develop and implement reparation programmes in transitional societies; a handbook specifically designed for non-state armed groups and how they can contribute to reparations, with another handbook focused on strategies for civil society groups to engage with foreign donors on reparations. c) To organise a major international conference in Belfast involving participants on each jurisdiction as well as spokespersons from international institutions. The conference will also serve as a platform to launch the guidelines and disseminate the research findings. d) A social media strategy for dissemination of information on the project and its outputs which will include: a project website; a project twitter account; and five project blogs. e) To write a range of print media op-eds. and opinion pieces for local newspapers in each jurisdiction (12 in total, 2 per case study).
The objectives of the project are to use waste biomass and waste water from a sugarcane processing plant as feedstock to produce bio-based chemicals. We will do this by: Developing and testing prototype bioreactors for biomass deconstruction Developing cheap robust enzyme cocktails foor biomass deconstruction Developing new microbial strains for bio-based chemical production from biomass hydrolysates
This 40 month long, Indian case-study will provide a comprehensive analysis of the governance of sickle cell and thalassaemia, inherited blood disorders (IBD), within the context of globalisation and the promise of genomics in reducing health inequities in the global South. The main aim of our research is to analyse the discursive practices surrounding treatment and 'prevention' of IBD as an emergent global health crisis; and the social and ethical ramifications of policies aimed at preventing 'inherited birth defects' for ethnically marginalised, poor and rural communities in India. Our empirical research will be contextualised within literature from medical anthropology/ sociology/ bioethics and health policy. It will thus have broader theoretical relevance to debates on genetics, ethnicity, gender, disability and reproductive agency, and the potential of geneticisation of medicine in reinforcing existing cultural and structural inequalities at a global level. A central focus of our research is to show how ethnographic research can be used to create a dialogue with the more pragmatic, neo-liberal policy concerns about 'prevention' of inherited diseases with a view to reducing childhood mortality and suffering in resource poor settings. The specific objectives of the research are: 1. To analyse the perspectives of main social actors in the field of management and prevention of sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders (IBD) at national, international and local levels 2. To engage with the specific questions and solutions related to IBD posed by these actors and the 'crisis rhetoric' related to genetic risk, vulnerability and prevention; and the language of rights, welfare and citizenship within which these questions are framed 3. To explore how IBD are recognised and (un)diagnosed within a local therapeutic milieu, and the kinds of decisions families have to make about treatment and long term care within the context of everyday life in the face of poverty 4. To understand how potential carriers, patients and carers affected by IBD engage with the notion of genetic risk; and how their strategies for 'prevention' relate to wider notions of resilience, (gendered) impairment, disability and 'anomalous births' 5. To disseminate the findings widely to academic audiences, local communities and healthcare practitioners; and provide a summary of findings with recommendation for national and international policy and practice audience based on the feedback from the local communities. Following a literature review, a multi-sited ethnography across four areas (Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) will include main actor interviews, shadowing NGOSs, community focus groups and practitioner interviews, to seek a macro perspective at international, national and local levels. We will conduct in-depth interviews with a sample of patients, carriers and two main carers in 80 households, in rural, poor, ethnically marginal communities (Rajasthan and Maharashtra), and 10 households from a higher socio-economic background in Delhi. A diverse sample achieved through our NGO networks and snowballing will enable us to locate the disease within its therapeutic milieu, and how it is (un)diagnosed and treated, within the context of limited resources and wider notions of gender, disability and kinship. Community engagement is an important feature of our research, and a wider objective is to highlight a successful model of state-NGO- practitioner alliances that can be adopted in other areas of health and healthcare settings. Sickle Cell Society India and PRAYAS, NGO collaborators, have been consulted about the research questions and will be closely involved in sampling, fieldwork and dissemination activities. Other community stakeholders will be involved in providing feedback on our findings to ensure that local priorities are reflected in the summary of findings and recommendations to be written for policy and practice.
We understand the equitable resilience challenge to reside in moving beyond securing the participation of marginalised groups, to focus on the 'political capabilities' of these communities - this is, their ability to influence decisions that determine which capabilities are secured and protected through urban resilience investments. As such, our objectives are, through phases of interdisciplinary action and research, to: (1) Reveal new understandings of the problem context: New forms of analysis will be developed to reveal the networks of material, institutional and political relations that shape how inequalities in risk and opportunity develop and are sustained in urban areas. (2) Develop new tools for analysis: Marginalised groups and the organisations that work with them will them co-develop new tools for this analysis, enabling them to produce new evidence and understandings of the city. (3) Identify strategies and argument: This analysis will help identify stakeholders and issues around which alliances for change can be built, and the evidence for alternative pathways for infrastructure development. (4) Open political space: Application of the new tools will be used to open spaces for dialogue between marginalised and influential city stakeholders, laying the ground for more equitable material outcomes and political relations. (5) Enable regional learning: Learning and dialogue opportunities between Thailand and Nepal will allow deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities of political capabilities, supporting engagement with national and regional decision makers.