Search Results for: "University of Warwick"
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMICs. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMICs can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMICs. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMICs in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice. 8) Retain a level of responsive research capacity to address emerging global health research requirements (Units only).
1) Deliver the UK's ambition to be internationally outstanding in global health research, improving the lives of people in LMIC. 2) Create an environment where world-class global health research, focused on the needs of LMIC can thrive. 3) Translate advances in applied global health research into benefits for patients and the public in LMIC. 4) Focus on priority areas which will have the greatest impact on health in LMIC in the short, medium and long term. 5) Provide high quality research evidence to inform decision-making by public health officials, practitioners and policy makers. 6) Increase the volume and quality of multi-disciplinary global health research from the UK. 7) Develop knowledge and capacity within existing UK institutions which can be translated into global health research practice.
1. Deliver research for the primary benefit to the health and welfare of the poorest individuals living in LMICs, typically through research for the prevention of ill health and optimal disease management, in three research areas: (1) Epilepsy (2) Infection-related cancers (3) Severe stigmatising skin diseases. 2. Strengthen capacity for research and knowledge exchange through equitable partnerships between researchers in the UK and LMICs. 3. Promote interdisciplinary approaches to working (including, but not limited to: clinical, health economics, statistics, qualitative and social sciences), to ensure that research objectives can be delivered.
Private Enterprise Development in Low-Income Countries (PEDL) is a joint research initiative of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) and the Department For International Development (DFID). It offers a competitive research grants scheme for projects related to the behaviour of firms in Low-Income Countries (LICs) that aim to better understand what determines the strength of market forces driving efficiency in these countries. It will pursue a research agenda focusing on private-sector development. Existing research suggests that the private sector in these countries faces a multitude of constraints. These constraints interact with one another. For example, the strategic interaction of firms with market power will be affected by the regulatory regime governing both new entrants and incumbent firms. What is needed is research which allows us to understand how these constraints interact. PEDL will pursue a range of approaches that promise to produce credible research results that will be useful for policy-making, supporting research related to private enterprises of all sizes, initially focused on four themes: modelling market frictions in LICs using newly available data, understanding how constraints interact using micro-founded macro models, the dynamics of SMEs - informality and entrepreneurship and the role of export-oriented industries in driving growth. PEDL offers a mixture of substantial research grants and smaller “Exploratory” grants. Grants will be awarded on a competitive basis, with applications solicited from researchers throughout the world.
Our objective is to drive a transformative response to antimicrobial resistance (AMR): by creating a vibrant and dynamic hub of research activities, and setting it within an integrated cohort of researchers at all levels, we will enable a step change in discovery, development, and implementation of AMR-targeted interventions. The hub will be durable and cohesive, integrating existing international endeavours and leveraging existing major research investments, in order to create a vehicle for the interchange of ideas and a critical mass of informed interdisciplinary researchers that will make breakthroughs in future healthcare in China, the UK and beyond We will: - Bring together world-class science and policy groups from UK and China, to form a hub of support platforms for fundamental and translational AMR discovery research. - Develop new scientific methods and associated software platforms to achieve high throughput natural product discovery from target to translation, tapping into the validated compound diversity inherent within traditional Chinese medicine to deliver a series of AMR targets highly enabled for translation. - Map capabilities and develop policy positions to influence funding and practice that will develop and strengthen the pipeline of AMR-targeted R&D and implementation in China and the UK. - Enable substantive exchange programs to train and inform, across the wider breadth of disciplines, the next generation of AMR researchers. Our objective and aims will be achieved through a series of integrated platforms, thereby "linking the pipeline": Platform 1: Target Validation and Mechanisms of essential processes, virulence and resistance mechanisms. This will deliver a robust pipeline of targets at all levels of development, drawn from ongoing fundamental research, making targets exploitable in the hub by solving their structures. Platform 2: Assays, fragment screening, natural products, and in silico design. This will deliver: hypersensitive biochemical assays for key targets to allow progressing compounds to potency; a novel approach to screening natural products, HTS affinity crystallography, using the XChem platform alongside fragment screening; design of fragment and natural product hit progression series, streamlined via optimized online tools. Platform 3: Hit to lead chemistry, bacteriology, toxicity and in vivo testing This platform will deliver lead compounds aimed towards commercial development. Platform 4: Policy This will deliver background data on R&D on antimicrobials in China; map key stakeholders, policies, regulations and other mechanisms; and interview stakeholders on factors influencing investment in R&D, and on possible incentive structures and collaboration mechanisms that can increase the quality and quantity of R&D. We will organise high-level workshops for scientists, policy-makers and regulators to discuss the findings and explore policy options. Platform 5: Translation and Industry This will deliver the translation of our nascent pipeline via a network of industrial partners. Platform 6: Knowledge Exchange This will deliver bespoke practical and theory training packages including research that will enhance the delivery of all platforms. It will instill a new multidisciplinary ethos in exchange students and researchers at all levels to drive a borderless response to AMR, enabling discovery to implementation within and beyond the hub.
Work package 1 (Affordable High-Quality Hearing Aids in Nepal): 1) To develop a hearing aid that meets the World Health Organisations target unit cost for LMICS of 3% DGP/capita and satisfies NHS clinically standards. 2) To develop fitting protocols suitable for use by Ear Care Practitioners in Nepal. 3) To expand hearing aid services to more geographic regions in Nepal and in particular rural communities. Work package 2 (Waterproofing Data in Brazil): 1) To develop a citizen-science mobile application and set of intervention guidelines for engagement of flood-prone communities and schools in the generation of flood-related data and improvement of flood resilience; 2) To conduct interventions for the generation of flood-related data and improvement of flood resilience in vulnerable communities around 81 schools spread across the Brazilian territory; 3) To monitor and evaluate impacts to flood resilience, consolidate lessons learned and disseminate results to key stakeholders to enable further uptake and improve flood resilience in Latin America and in other regions of the world.
URBE Latam seeks to expand and refine the understanding of risks, vulnerabilities and potentialities associated with rain-related geohazards in Latin America by rethinking how environmental risk data is produced, how it is used, and how it might enable transformations that close the implementation gap in delivering equitable resilience for marginalised communities. The project will be based on two case studies focusing on specific areas of Rio Janeiro and Medellin; however, the findings and methods developed during the research will be widely transferable to other places and environmental contexts. This overarching goal will be achieved through the pursuit of five main objectives: 1. Dialogically engage citizens in marginalised communities to promote awareness and generate data about local vulnerabilities and potentialities. 2. Develop a digital platform and mobile app that will underpin the processing and analysis of the data produced by the citizen engagement programme. 3. Understand the ways in which local government authorities, and other agencies involved in the management of environmental risk, currently collect and monitor data to enhance resilience. 4. Integrate the new forms citizen-generated data with conventional data sources to recalibrate risk management practices, in ways that enable pathways for transition to sustainable development whilst also supporting more equitable decision-making and policy-making on development and resilience. 5. Develop and promote communication and knowledge exchange between stakeholders of various agencies - both governmental and non-governmental - that are currently working to improve local development of marginalised neighbourhoods in these major Latin American cities and their resilience to rain-related geohazards.
PATHWAYS and evolution of pollutants: Interactions between physical controlling effects, microbial community composition and pollutant biodegradationUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The overall aims of this proposal are to improve the understanding and descriptions of the key physico-chemical processes in the Thane Creek & Ulhas river catchment, with particular emphasis on those processes impacting on water quality and public health issues. The research will take systematic evidence based methodologies that will entail in situ seasonal field work experiments, combined with physical model experiments to provide new knowledge of the interactions between the physical controlling effects, microbial community composition and pollutant biodegradation rates through interpretation of unique velocity, chemical biodegradation in water-sediment system and tracer measurements. Algorithms will be developed and validated to describe the pathways and evolution throughout the catchment. 'The project therefore has six main key objectives: 1. Develop novel instrumentation (using hyporheic exchange principles across the sediment-water interface) to obtain data that will provide essential understanding of the integrated dispersion coefficients at key locations across the field study region. 2. To undertake a comprehensive in-situ field based catchment study local to our Indian counterparts at the Indian Institute of Technology of Bombay. 3. Perform turbulent velocity, momentum transport and solute dispersion measurements (using combined LDA, PIV & PLIF techniques) to obtain a comprehensive data set under representative field flow conditions in laboratory flumes, and interpret and quantify the mixing processes under a range of flow conditions and bathymetries. 4. Quantify & understand the interactions, PATHWAYS and evolution of pollutants, specifically in terms of independent variables such shape, boundary, free surface, light, degradation & sorption to develop and disseminate algorithms to predict the magnitude of dispersion coefficients, and chemical longevity. 5. Derive algorithms describing the solute dispersion in terms of the physical parameters, and biodegradation rates suitable for inclusion in numerical water quality models. 6. To propose management and governance solutions that are appropriate for the Indian bodies across all levels of government, including presentation of decision support management technology solutions to an Indian audience, using the UT catchment, to increase the effectiveness of decision-making and informing our end users about water quality risks through effective dissemination routes.
Identification of factors affecting successful outcomes in the DDU-GKY Indian skills programme for unemployed young peopleUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The project has the following objectives: To assess how social inclusion factors impact upon access to training and the achievement of successful outcomes, using the DDU-GKY programme as an exemplar developing country case; To identify measures of success that incorporate social inclusion, the development of employability or soft skills and the personal efficacy to employ these skills in the transition into work; To develop a framework that can be used to monitor the DDU-GKY programme and by policy-makers more broadly to assess the social equity outcomes of training programmes; To provide extensive capacity-building by a) training local data collectors and data entry staff in the ongoing fieldwork; b) providing quantitative and qualitative research methods training sessions for local academics, post-graduates and other key actors such as local data collectors; and c) providing evaluation methods training for future evaluation of the programme; To assess the efficacy of public-private partnerships in developing training programmes to achieve both economic and social aims and the facilitators and barriers to this.
Waterproofing Data: engaging stakeholders in the sustainable governance of flood risks for urban resilienceUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
This project focuses on the social and cultural aspects of water-related risks, with a specific emphasis on data practices. Data form a core component of our capacity to identify, monitor, respond to and assess natural hazards and are therefore central to most flood resilience initiatives. Data also flows, through sensors, cables, information systems and screen displays, forging relations between humans and environmental phenomena, and between different groups of stakeholders. In other words, although data are not commonly featured as the object of social and cultural research, they are nonetheless central to how social and natural entities are woven together into specific configurations. Our approach involves rethinking this role of data as a sociotechnical actor. Rethinking how flood-related data is produced and how it flows will enable transformations to build sustainable, flood resilient communities. In order to achieve this, Waterproofing Data has the following objectives: 1. Make visible the way citizens, local government authorities, and other agencies involved in the management of water-related risks engage with data on flooding. 2. Engage citizens to produce, circulate and embed data, which incorporates and builds upon pre-existing flood memories and local knowledge of flood risk, to increase community resilience. 3. Integrate citizen-generated data with other data sources, such as environmental sensors, socio-demographics and risk mapping, in ways that support decision-making and policy-making on flooding. Each objective will be addressed through the development of innovative methods: Using research techniques drawn from the social sciences, we begin by making existing data practices visible through the creation of data diaries to document and analyse the specific flows and contextual uses of data across different sites. Drawing from humanities approaches which stress the importance of local and embedded knowledge of flood memories, we will engage citizens through a flood memory app, online repository, educational programme, and data-driven environmental installations. Citizen-generated data will be integrated with existing sources of flood-related data through the development of three data visualisation interfaces, each tailored to the distinct user needs of the main project stakeholders. To do this, we will rely on methods drawn from the computational social sciences. Waterproofing Data will therefore not only study data as a social actor, but use this quality of data as the basis for a series of transformative interventions. Through making data practices more visible; widening participation in data generation; diversifying what counts as data; increasing data literacy; and altering how data flows, what it "joins up" and how it is communicated, Waterproofing Data will improve the resilience of flood-vulnerable communities and increase the capacity for local government and disaster monitoring centres to know and respond to flood events. Conversely, by making data the means by which we weave a flood resilience network together we will improve the sustainability of flood-related data (by strengthening the networks that produce and receive it). This will be achieved, for example, by "embedding" data into local narratives and material contexts which do not necessarily rely on digital infrastructures.
inequalities in human condition continue to be one of the major challenge that our fast growing and integrating world is facing. Yet inequality is a complex notion. Besides the usual wealth and income inequalities, the public debate often address more subtle inequalities of opportunities among social groups as well as inequalities in health, education, access to new-technologies, exposure to environmental risks, etc. The complex nature of these inequalities, which take different forms in developed and developing countries, raises important challenges for the individuals who are affected by them, the policy makers who want to alleviate them, and the social scientists who want to understand them. One of these challenges concerns the very meaning and measurement of these inequalities. The standard tools for appraising income or wealth inequalities - for example by means of inequality indices or Lorenz curves - are in effect inadequate for appraising inequality in more qualitative or ordinal dimensions such as social status, health or education. The standard tools of inequality measurement are also imperfectly suited to address the multidimensionality of the attributes that are distributed among humans. In effect, when one deals with, say, health and income inequality, it is important to properly account for the correlation that may exist between these two variables, in addition to the usual dispersion of each of the variable in isolation. An important output of the research project will be to propose new methods for appraising these inequalities that duly account for both the ordinal or qualitative feature of many of the concerned variable and the specific issues raised by their multidimensionality. Another challenge raised by those inequalities lies in the attitudes that people develop about them. A country like India for instance is commonly depicted as being more tolerant with respect to inequalities in social status - that underlie the continuing prevalence of the caste system - than European and North American countries. The research project will accordingly examine how these cultural differences in attitudes to inequalities affect the very way by which these inequalities are appraised and analysed. The last challenge raised by inequalities concerns the policies put in place to mitigate their most adverse consequences. India has implement various programs that aim at reducing pecuniary poverty and inequality on the one hand and inequalities of opportunities among castes on the other. The project will provide an extensive analysis of two such programs. It will also perform various empirical analysis of the consequences of inequalities in India, and will favor for this sake a pluridisciplinary perspective made of a mixture of quantitative analysis of large survey data and a more qualitative one based on interviews and on "live trajectories".
Improving diagnosis of brain infections in Indonesia using novel and established molecular diagnostic tools.UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Aim: Introduce and evaluate novel and established molecular tools (alongside current microbiological techniques [culture and Gram stain]) to improve pathogen detection and syndromic diagnosis of CNS infection among suspected Indonesian meningo-encephalitis patients. Hypothesis: Implementation of novel (i.e. TRanscripts Identifying bacterial Meningitis [TRIM] test) and established (i.e. pathogen-specific RT-PCR) molecular tools, alongside current microbiological techniques, will improve pathogen detection and syndromic diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection among suspected Indonesian meningo-encephalitis patients. Primary Objectives: (i) Validate the accuracy of the Transcripts Identifying bacterial Meningitis (TRIM) test in distinguishing bacterial meningo-encephalitis from clinical mimics [meningism or viral infection] among Indonesian child and adult patients recruited through Universitas Gadjah Mada and Universitas Indonesia. Test accuracy will be compared to a composite reference (culture, pathogen-specific PCR and antibody testing). Target TRIM accuracy is 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity. (ii) Increase the proportion of suspected meningo-encephalitis patients with a pathogen detected through implementation of pathogen-specific PCR and antibody tests on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We will measure the proportion of child and adult meningo-encephalitis patients with a pathogen detected when these tests are used alongside routine testing [culture and Gram stain], compared to routine testing alone. Testing will continue at Universitas Gadjah Mada, and be applied to child samples recruited from Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital linked to Universitas Indonesia. (iii) Evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of introducing pathogen-specific PCR, antibody and TRIM testing in Indonesian hospitals. Evaluation of the TRIM test will be conditional on it achieving target accuracy. The data will provide information to stakeholders at local, regional and national levels to stimulate consideration of more widespread introduction of these techniques. Secondary objectives: (iv) Assess accuracy of an extended TRIM marker set (TRIM with additional marker pairs) in distinguishing tuberculous meningitis (TBM) from other bacterial causes of meningo-encephalitis. Using our transcript database we will identify additional marker pairs that distinguish TBM from other bacterial causes. Accuracy of the extended TRIM will be tested among the Indonesian samples. (v) Enhance design of our pathogen-specific PCR panel. We will undertake next generation sequencing among PCR negative CSF samples. Identified pathogens and their associated sequence data will inform design of new pathogen-specific PCRs.
The Effect of Local Crime on Child Marriage, School Dropout, and Employment Outcomes: A Gender Perspective from IndiaUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The research has three core objectives: 1. To analyse the relationship between local crimes (both gender neutral and gender specific), child marriage, and school dropout, and employment participation; 2. To provide evidence to inform policy implementation on the extent to which these issues affect the uptake and outcomes of programmes designed to improve human capital development amongst adolescent girls; 3. To develop the capacity of the NGO partner to analyse and use the data they collect on an ongoing basis through the provision of methodological skills training. To provide resources that can be used by the NGO, schools and other local stakeholders to engage adolescent school children with the issues identified with the aim of changing attitudes and practices.
This follow-up project aims to integrate into adaptation and resilience policy-making some of the lessons gained through the Why We Disagree About Development (WhyDAR) research project (NE/P01609X/1). WhyDAR aimed to identify different ways in which urban resilience is understood while investigating the role of science, technology, ethics and expertise in the making of resilience strategies in the Global South. It drew out key ethical questions arising from disagreement about conceptions to resilience, and asked what an equitable approach to resilience would look like in the face of this disagreement. Aiming to integrate these lessons into real-life adaptation and resilience policy, the main objectives of this project are two-fold. First, we will develop and implement in practice frameworks for inserting ethics concern into policy deliberations on adaptation and resilience in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research shows that LMICs are most vulnerable to experience the negative effects of climate change in terms of the impact on individual lives, livelihoods and well-being, the economy, social and cultural institutions, and biodiversity. Given these vulnerabilities, it is crucial to ensure that LMICs have the necessary capacities to adapt to climate change as well as have access to resilient infrastructures and institutions that take into account ethical issues, such as gender inequalities, social and cultural marginalization, power imbalances, and inequality of access. We will especially investigate three deliberative frameworks - (i) stakeholder dialogues, (ii) scenario building exercises, and (iii) problem-oriented deliberations - through implementation within the Climate Adaptation Team of Cape Town, South Africa as a two-way learning process. In the process, we will develop a set of best deliberative practices that can be implemented within similar contexts, including an open access report. Accordingly, second, we will develop resources to build capacities within non-governmental organizations to assist in implementing the framework(s) for inserting ethics into adaptation and resilience policy-making within LMICs, including learning materials in the form of an open access report. In this regard, we will especially work together with existing contacts within Practical Action and Christian Aid. This objective ensures that the project will have impact beyond the scope of the funding period because these organizations have a wide reach and existing capacities for working within LMICs to advance adaptation and resilience efforts. Additionally, as secondary objectives, the project will aim to expand on the WhyDAR project through the co-creation of knowledge about ethical issues in adaptation and resilience planning and challenges to addressing them as well as about the challenges to knowledge-integration and how these can be overcome.
This seed fund network will facilitate the development of an interdisciplinary, inter-sector and international team working on Digital Health and Digital Rights. The team will focus on mobile consulting (mConsulting) that is when patients consult with healthcare providers on a health issue using some form of digital communication. The mConsulting will be aimed at remote, marginalised communities of East and West Africa. The network will catalyse the development of a large-scale proposal to be submitted for the second round of DIDA funding. Our proposed seed fund Network includes organisations based in Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda and has the following sequential objectives: 1. Extend and consolidate our interdisciplinary and inter-sector network to include all relevant, necessary people/organisations; 2. Co-produce with remote communities and their local healthcare providers, mConsulting providers, policy makers and telecommunication providers where needed, plans for mconsulting for the communities; 3. Explore innovative approaches to research capacity building, mentorship and partnership that will form the framework for collaborative working in future research; 4. Develop a proposal to evaluate the impact of mConsulting provision on healthcare access and health outcome and to explore what works (or not) for whom, where, when and why. During co-production, we will identify community priorities for healthcare and what they would value about mConsulting. We expect plans to be for a domain of primary care such as acute conditions or long-term conditions or child and maternal health or mental health. In the follow-on research, mConsulting providers and/or healthcare providers developing mConsulting will implement a service for remote marginalised communities in 2 or more African countries, within a primary care health domain. We will: I) Evaluate the impact of mConsulting on health status and healthcare access; II) Evaluate what works, where, when and for whom; III) Identify contextual factors that need to change to ensure scalability of successful mConsulting. Our seed network and follow-on research will meet DIDA programme strategic goals as we will: A) Answer research questions: What is the impact of mobile consulting (mConsulting) provision on the healthcare access and health outcomes of remote marginalised communities in Africa? How is mConsulting optimally integrated with local healthcare provision and why? B) Collaborate throughout the research with healthcare users and their local providers in remote communities, mConsulting providers, and policy makers so resulting research evidence gains immediate impact - supporting or not, implementation of mConsulting for remote communities in Africa; C) Produce research evidence on whether and how mConsulting can contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of universal health coverage with access to quality healthcare for all in Africa; D) Produce evidence relevant to and scalable in different contexts in Africa through evaluating a variety of locally co-produced manifestations of mConsulting for remote, marginalised communities, and identifying contextual factors that enable or inhibit its success in impacting on health need; E) Strengthen research capacity in digital health research and innovation in Africa, particularly implementation of digital health solutions for marginalised communities; F) Establish new models of mentorship and partnership for digital research and innovation between Africa and the UK and between universities, commercial companies, policy makers, healthcare providers and communities so we leverage the strengths of all stakeholders to collaboratively optimise healthcare provision for marginalised communities.
Treating hypertension in rural South Africa: Comparative effectiveness of two different patient outreach models.UK - Medical Research Council
Skills for Prosperity Programme (S4PKe) is a new FCDO-funded programme which began in October 2020. Over 2.5-years, S4PKe will provide technical assistance to improve the quality, relevance, equity, and cost-effectiveness of higher education (HE) and technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Kenya. The programme aims to improve the skill levels, employment rates, and productivity of beneficiaries, particularly for women, low-income youth, and persons with disabilities. A key pillar of the programme will include providing technical assistance towards the National Open University of Kenya set-up. Leonard Cheshire is leading the S4PKe consortium, which consists of the ILO, The Open University (UK), Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE), Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE), Warwick Institute for Employment Research, Edukans and Capital Strategies. https://www.leonardcheshire.org/about-us/our-news/press-releases/programme-will-open-training-and-education-marginalised-and