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The Modern Slavery Fund is the Home Office’s £33.5m official development assistance (ODA) fund to support the UK’s goal of reducing the prevalence of modern slavery in countries from which the UK sees a high number of victims. This activity started in 2016/17 and will end in 2020/21. The fund actively contributes to achieving the UN sustainable development goal target 8.7 which calls for “immediate and effective measures to eradicate modern slavery” by 2030. The fund forms part of a UK government commitment to spend £200m of ODA on tackling modern slavery. As part of the Home Office Modern Slavery Fund we are investing £3m in Vietnam, £5m in Nigeria and £2m in Albania. The Modern Slavery Fund also includes an £11m Innovation Fund, which builds the evidence base by supporting projects taking innovative approaches to tackling modern slavery.
This programme will increase knowledge and capacity on migration and migration governance amongst key UK partners to facilitate safe and orderly migration, as per Sustainable Development Goal 10.7, and prevent unsafe and unregulated migration. This will be achieved through providing funding to the Start-Up Fund for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration to support country-led programming, a civil society non-profit organisation to drive international dialogue and policy thinking, and discrete projects that contribute to this goal.
Camps remain default response to new crises of forced displacement, capturing the attention of the media, relief organisations and academia. But as short-term emergencies turn into protracted displacement, camp living can erode residents' dignity and increase aid dependency. In response, displaced people are increasingly moving to cities, avoiding camps to seek autonomy and freedom over dependency and isolation. In tandem, international policy has focused on self-reliance as a solution to protracted displacement, currently taking its toll on the overstretched humanitarian system. The different impacts of camp and urban environments on the lives of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people have not been systematically evaluated. Relatively little is known about how displaced people in cities interact with people, institutions, and economies (informal and formal), or how cities can better respond to their needs. This understanding is critical if we are to move towards displacement responses that promote rights, dignity, and well-being, and facilitate displaced people's economic contributions to their host settings. The research thus examines the potential of urban response to long-term displacement, assessing how cities can foster displaced people's self-reliance and local integration in ways that benefit host governments and communities. It will achieve this through large-scale studies of displacement experiences in cities and camps in Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Jordan and Kenya. The ultimate goal is to improve the well-being and productive livelihoods of displaced people to enable their full participation in urban life. Research aims: 1. Build an evidence base for national and local governments, humanitarian agencies and donors on the opportunities and challenges of hosting displaced people in camps vs. urban areas 2. Promote an assessment of current responses to urban protracted displacement, raising awareness of unmet need 3. Build the capacity of municipal authorities, displaced people, organisations of the urban poor and other local actors to use participatory planning to underpin development-based solutions to forced displacement. Research objectives: 1. To examine the building blocks of self-reliance and meaning of well-being from the perspectives of refugees, returnees and IDPs (women and men) 2. From these understandings, to analyse the difference that urban or camp settings make to: a) households' ability to achieve self-reliance, well-being and productive livelihoods b) the potential social and economic contribution of refugee, IDP and returnee economies (displacement economies) to host communities and local economic development 3. To address the gap in knowledge about the challenges and opportunities of protracted displacement in urban settings for hosts and displaced people, including: a) the social, economic and institutional (formal and informal) barriers and opportunities to achieving self-reliance, well-being and productive livelihoods for women/men, and b) the role of municipal government and other local actors in fostering self-reliance, social support and realisation of rights for refugees, IDPs and returnees. The research addresses 3 critical gaps in knowledge. First, the concept of self-reliance holds a central place in international policy on managing displacement, but there is a critical absence in self-reliance and well-being literature of attempts to work with displaced people and their hosts to identify their own definitions of these terms and co-design solutions to protracted displacement. Second, is the lack of evidence on the cumulative effect of displacement economies as a positive force for local economic development. Third is the lack of significant analyses of the role of municipalities in supporting the urban displaced, and of development solutions that can both meet critical needs of the urban poor and the specific needs of vulnerable urban refugees/IDPs.
The objectives of the study will be: 1. To compile a longitudinal data bank of workplace grievances, as experienced by workers in the garment factories of Bangalore, India, as a basis for transparency and advocacy for more effective access to remedy. There is an established tradition of civil society campaigning for better conditions in garment manufacture. Yet, in the absence of regular and reliable enforcement mechanisms at workplace level, we know that neither statutory nor voluntary standards of good practice are reliably observed or enforced. In this context, workers' experiences of seeking access to remedy are largely hidden from scrutiny. In compiling a databank of grievances as communicated to us by workers we will categorise grievances to identify, for example, common concerns, contraventions of core labour standards and recurring practices and themes. The resulting databank will increase transparency and visibility of workers' issues, provide academic insight, and act as a source of evidence for civil society advocacy with policy makers and international brands, around workplace mechanisms for access to remedy. 2. To monitor the progression of workplace grievances through grievance resolution mechanisms over time, from inception to final outcome, as a means of understanding power and process at the workplace. By tracking the progress of grievances, we intend to illuminate access to remedy at workplaces across the sector in a specific urban district. We wish to understand the implications for the individual of registering any form of grievance and exactly how such issues, including contravention of statutory rights, are processed and resolved. By studying the nature, process and outcomes of workplace grievances, we will increase visibility of the concrete experiences of individual workers and the power relations of the factory environment, including the role and status of organised labour. The study will thus provide a picture of access to remedy at the workplace, in a particular urban setting. 3. To develop skills and capacity at the grass roots in civil society in Bangalore, India. Through this project, the skills demanded of systematic data collection, input and analysis will be further developed among fieldworkers and researchers in Bangalore. Our civil society partner, Cividep, will supervise and monitor data collection by fieldworkers currently active in the Garment Labour Union (GLU). GLU is a small grass-roots, registered trade union whose leadership is dominated by female, former garment workers. GLU fieldworkers already possess invaluable local experience of the industry and organising and this project will strengthen its administrative capabilities and advocacy role. The project will also assist in providing a reliable foundation of evidence for Cividep's local and transnational civil society advocacy with clothing brands headquartered in the UK, Europe and elsewhere. 4. To publish high quality research outputs in internationally renowned journals and publications and disseminate knowledge to policy makers and practitioners in line with a broader ethos of public value in academia. The programme of research will provide a unique study of conditions of employment at the workplace in a developing country, at the base of a labour-intensive global value chain, where principles of decent work fail in the absence of robust mechanisms of enforcement. As such, the research directly addresses aspects of policy making at national and international level. The research project will therefore provide important new evidence of workplace relations in an area that is currently under-researched. This evidence will be of pertinence to academics, policy makers, civil society organisations, business leaders, employers and the public, within both developed and developing economies. Our dissemination strategy will ensure that our research findings are promoted to these different stakeholders.
Nudging towards a better financial future: applying behavioural insights in the development of financial systems in rural ChinaUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
To investigate the capabilities of behavioural change policies, which are known to improve the effectiveness of public policies, in China's rural financial markets and the acceptance of the approach by policy makers, financial service providers, and most importantly, rural households in China. To conduct field experiments to identify psychological and social factors that may potentially affect the development of rural financial systems in China and to cross-validate the existing laboratory experiment results and field evidence from the UK. To investigate whether and how confidence affects the effectiveness of rural financial policies in China and to identify nudges that can potentially improve financial policy compliance in areas with low confidence in local cadres. To investigate the potential of combining behavioural interventions with digital technology in rural financial systems and to identify e-Nudges (i.e., behavioural interventions enabled by digital technology) that can be used to help rural households in developing healthy financial habits. To use the research activities and findings as vehicles to engage and educate stakeholders, including rural residents, local governments, regulators, and financial institutions. To disseminate the research findings to the community, inform policy makers and regulators about the gold standard for behavioural interventions, and raise the awareness of behavioural policy change in China and to educate the public about the nature and consequences of human limitations.
SPEEDIER - Surveillance integrating Phylogenetics and Epidemiology for Elimination of Disease: Evaluation of Rabies Control in the PhilippinesUK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
SPEEDIER's aim is to deliver a cost-effective, epidemiologically robust, enhanced surveillance and response package to guide and sustain the elimination of rabies from the Philippines. The package includes integration of surveillance and response activities by the human and animal health sectors ('One Health') through a program of Integrated Bite Case Management to improve patient care and trigger early detection of animal rabies cases. As part of the package we will develop a genomic surveillance platform as a decision support tool to inform control activities and assess incursions risks, and undertake epidemiological modeling to inform contingency planning for managing re-emergence and maintaining disease freedom. Through an implementation study of enhanced surveillance and response (SPEEDIER) in 3 provinces: Romblon, Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro, that span rabies endemic, rabies endgame and potentially rabies free situations, this project aims to achieve the following objectives: 1. Assess the impact of SPEEDIER on increasing case detection of rabies and thereby enabling rapid and effective outbreak responses to maintain freedom from disease 2. Assess the impact of SPEEDIER on reducing unnecessary use of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and therefore the potential for generating cost savings, including the timeframe over which benefits are achieved 3. Assess the potential for SPEEDIER to improve patient care, by identifying and treating persons bitten by suspect rabid dogs who would otherwise be overlooked by the health system. 4. Determine whether SPEEDIER can be implemented as intended in different local contexts, identifying facilitators and barriers to successful implementation and sustainable roll out; 5. Develop best practices for delivering enhanced surveillance to support rabies elimination, bridging research to policy and implementation. 6. Develop decision support tools and guidance for risk assessment, outbreak response and maintaining rabies freedom in the Philippines. Epidemiological modeling and phylogenetic inference will be used in developing risk analysis and contingency plans drawing from the detailed genomic and epidemiological data generated through enhanced surveillance, and through close consultation with local and national stakeholders to address questions of immediate local and national relevance. Through the implementation of SPEEDIER we aim to generate evidence that will enable provincial verification of freedom from rabies, and tailored guidance for how to imminently achieve elimination for provinces encountering challenges. The resulting evidence and best practice generated will provide an effective and sustainable model for the scaling up of enhanced surveillance nationally. Moreover, international agencies recognize the important need to develop effective surveillance and sustainable approaches to guide rabies elimination programmes, and therefore the tools and best practice developed will be invaluable for supporting efforts to achieve the global target of zero human rabies deaths by 2030.
The overarching aim of the proposed project is to maximise the exploitation of data on its Urgent Appeals work that the Clean Clothes Campaign (CCC) holds but has not hitherto fully utilised. Such data has significant potential as an evidential base for decision making, strategic planning and targeting of tactics in campaigning and advocacy. It is also a powerful bank of knowledge that could and should be more fully shared throughout the CCC network. The data's potential has been identified within CCC but in conditions of limited resource it had proved impossible to devote the necessary time to organising and coding information contained in the records of UA cases in a way that will support detailed analysis of patterns and themes. The IAA NGO Data project (October 2018-March 2019) provided the funding that began the task of establishing a dataset that would act as a user friendly analytical tool for the CCC Network. The IAA project achieved its limited objectives, but having begun working with the data it was apparent that far more could be done. The challenge is to provide CCC with a dataset that allows access to the information embedded in each Urgent Appeal and thereby provides an accurate and reliable evidential base for campaigning and advocacy. We therefore wish to build on the work done under the terms of the IAA NGO Data funding and further review and improve the dataset we developed (referred to here as the IAA dataset) as a long-term source of shared learning and strategic decision making. Two key objectives sit at the centre of the current application: Research Objective 1: To further review and evaluate the UA IAA database in collaboration with CCC colleagues, with three aims: a. to address issues highlighted to CCC in March 2019 around incomplete or inaccurate data, thereby improving the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the database; b. to undertake a comprehensive needs analysis and assess the functional capacity of the IAA database for future usage in the light of sectoral trends; c. to make recommendations for the maintenance and utilisation of the dataset within CCC. Research Objective 2: To analyse the UA database in greater detail and embed it in the CCC network as a strategic tool with direct application to advocacy and campaigning. Such analysis would involve, for example, the tracking and mapping of violations, identification of successful campaigning strategies and exploring relationships between violations according to country characteristics and national / institutional variations. Realisation of these objectives will aid the CCC International Office in disseminating learning across the network, establishing a sound evidential base developed from their own internal data and strategizing their campaigning and advocacy. It will also give Urgent Appeals Coordinators (UACs) easier access to information on brand behaviour, trends in violations and successful campaigning tactics in specific contexts. This sort of access to information is crucial for CCC and for UACs operating in highly complex contexts, where a large amount of information needs to be evaluated under extreme pressures. Provision of high quality data analysis in real time should improve UAC effectiveness in real time as well as providing a knowledge base that the CCC network will cascade down to human rights defenders on the ground, to the wider benefit of the struggle for decent work and human rights in ODA countries.
Combating Human Trafficking in Zimbabwe: The role of NGOs in the fight against Human Trafficking in Zimbabwe.UK - Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Human Trafficking is one of the most profitable criminal enterprises, garnering an estimated $150 billion in profit annually (ILO 2014) as well as being one of the most 'heinous crimes' which has robbed approximately 24.9 million people of their freedom and basic human rights (2019 TIP report). It is a global issue and as the scale, scope and complexity of human trafficking continue to grow, addressing this issue has become a part of the UN Sustainable Development Agenda, with SDG 8.7 seeking to take effective measures to eradicate human trafficking by 2030. Zimbabwe is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons, yet the prevalence of different forms of human trafficking in the country is unknown and the conviction rates and victim identification pattern remain a cause for concern. Findings from our recent pilot study (conducted by the PI and UK-based CI), which focused on the recent case of human trafficking involving about 200 Zimbabwean women who were rescued and repatriated from Kuwait, have revealed the misrepresentations of human trafficking as solely a case of transnational organised crime, merely a gendered issue as well as the conflation of human trafficking with sexual exploitation. The pilot findings have further highlighted the gaps in domestic policy, showing that Zimbabwe's current Trafficking in Persons law is inconsistent with international laws as it defines trafficking in persons as a movement based crime and does not adequately define 'exploitation'. This not only leaves many victims of trafficking without legal protection but has huge implications on how human trafficking is understood and anti-trafficking initiatives are undertaken. Working in partnership with four Zimbabwe-based NGOs, this project will undertake secondary analysis of the data that these organisations hold in order to produce new knowledge on this important but under-researched issue. By adopting a 'community based participatory research approach', the project will provide the much needed insight into the prevalent forms of human trafficking in Zimbabwe, extend the knowledge regarding the role of NGOs in the fight against human trafficking, and open up possibilities for more effective solutions to questions of combating trafficking more broadly. Key stakeholders have been engaged in the development of this project and impact activities are embedded in its day-to-day working. It is our intention to use the findings from this project as the starting point for a new research agenda on human trafficking in Africa and the role of NGOs in the fight against human trafficking. The complexity of human trafficking, as experienced across the African region (as elsewhere across the globe), points to the possibility of using the findings from this project to expand to one of a multi-country Sub-Saharan Africa project. Key objectives are to: RO1: explore the extent to which the existing NGO human trafficking data provide evidence of the prevalence of different forms of human trafficking in Zimbabwe as well as an evaluation of the prevalence of human trafficking by age and gender, and the possible explanations RO2: provide an evaluation of what, according to the various data, may be the opportunities and constraints that characterise NGOs' anti-trafficking work RO3: Increase the impact of human trafficking data that NGOs hold through stakeholder dissemination The project team will at all stages fully engage with key stakeholders involved with anti-trafficking work, and will disseminate the outcomes through stakeholder and academic networks in order to ensure the maximum possible impact for the research.
This project will underpin global sustainable development by creating the first global slavery-free cities network. The objectives of this project are: - To create a two-year programme of knowledge-exchange connecting academic partners, law enforcement, local government, NGOs and faith organisations working at city level, with the aim of building and improving place-based anti-slavery interventions. - To establish the infrastructure for a wider global slavery-free cities network. - To develop and test a slavery-free communities audit tool, which will assist in reviewing and comparing resilience against slavery on a locality basis. - To build an interactive online platform, that will facilitate the sharing of information, policy and practice between local policymakers and practitioners in the network. - To review local policy and practice in at least four participating cities, with the aim of promoting the prevention of slavery, facilitating discovery of victims, improving opportunities for respite and recovery, and creating strategies to promote long-term resilience. - To improve capacity for engaging communities as co-producers of slavery-free cities, through action-research and improved use of social media (working alongside Freedom United). - To work with UN University's Centre for Policy Research (UNU-CPR) to explore how learning from the network can contribute towards the development of a slavery-free communities index, to measure place-based resilience against slavery. - To share knowledge gained through the network in the form of thematic reports, websites and social media, and short films and documentaries. - To develop proposals for future research and wider network-development to underpin the concept and practice of slavery-free communities as a lever for sustainable development and improving personal and community security.
This two-year research network will develop and build upon strong foundations established through partnerships between UK and Indian academics and societal partners, with a broad aim of gendering the smart city agenda. To do so, it will use interdisciplinary approaches from urban studies, feminist geography and digital humanities to critique smart city claims of creating safe and sustainable cities through crowdsourced safety apps for women. It tests the hypothesis that the corporate driven smart city based on Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT) produces cities as 'containers' for smart technologies and GBV survivors as passive data-sensors with a disembodied yet 'real' experience of intimate violence in the city. The network thus aims to establish an alternative curation framework on Gender Based Violence (GBV) through a combination of gendered big data as well as the voices, experiences and creative digital practices of GBV survivors in informal settlements. The network will fulfill the following objectives: 1) To establish a network of academics, ICT enterprises, feminist NGOs and creative industries from UK and India working conceptually to engage in dialogue between current strands of research and development-oriented work on the safe smart city. While Delhi and Bengaluru's smart city agendas seek to establish them as safe cities by promoting crowdsoured safety apps for women, this network will seek to identify the 'blindspots' of gendered big data on GBV to develop alternative curation frameworks with GBV survivors. 2) To promote and develop a network of support, co-operation and knowledge exchange in two city focused stakeholder workshops in Delhi and Bengaluru. We will examine the smart city visions, policies, projects and technologies of Delhi and Bengaluru to understand how they aim to address gender justice across public and private spaces and deliver on NUA and SDG goals on Gender Equality and New Technologies. We will invite a range of stakeholders from academics, third sector, creative industries, law enforcement agencies, state departments, media/digital enterprises and grassroots organizations working on this theme. The aim will be to initiate pathways to shift current smart city agendas in Delhi and Bengaluru to make them more responsive to the experiences of GBV survivors. 3) To co-create two digital installations with GBV survivors from informal settlements in Delhi and Bengaluru to give them voice, agency and creative space within the smart city. The installations will use digital humanities methods to explore the 'data body' - a virtual entity that is unencumbered by the real and imagined boundaries which structure and control women's everyday experiences with GBV. The installations will initiate transformational change amongst GBV survivors and establish them as rights claiming citizens across material and digital spaces. 4) To strengthen international links between academic and non-academic partners in fostering critical dialogues on the smart city agenda on women's safety. This will be established through a London symposium in Somerset house, hosted by King's College London and the King's College London Cultural Institute (KCLCI). 5) To develop a multidisciplinary and international scope to the theme in the establishment of a project website and social media engagement through the duration of the project. The website will be regularly maintained by the team and will disseminate findings and engage with wider publics via regular blogs and announcements. 6) Catalyse the development of a long-term research programme on the gendered smart city. We will develop the network interaction between Indian and UK academics through published outputs and a joint RCUK grant application within 18 months of the project end.